Review: Volume 21 - Science

Review: Volume 21 - Science

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In April 1932, about forty mostly young scientists attended Niels Bohr's Copenhagen Institute for their week-long once-a-year freewheeling physics conference. For many, it would come to represent the last gathering where they were able to conduct such discussions in the spirit of camaraderie and in a milieu that felt safe. There was much talk that April about new findings, about their careers and about political events in their own countries, but the core of their discourse was physics. The neutron had been discovered two months before the meeting and the first experimentally induced nuclear transmutation had been achieved just the week before they gathered in Copenhagen. The era of nuclear physics, of nuclear power, of big science and of large-scale experiments had begun. The events of 1932 would change the direction of their research and of their lives.These discoveries also brought with them the first glimmerings of the nuclear weapons that would move physicists into the arena of international power struggles. "Faust in Copenhagen" centres on the lives and careers of seven physicists.

Six of them - Niels Bohr, Paul Ehrenfest, Lise Meitner, Wolfang Pauli, Werner Heisenberg and Paul Dirac - had been sitting in the front row at the Copenhagen meeting, and were already in the pantheon of physics greats. The seventh, Max Delbruck, was the author of a skit concluding the meeting, in which the junior physicists poked fun at their elders. As a version of Goethe's "Faust", adapted to embrace the complexities of contemporary physics, the skit eerily foreshadows many events that unfolded in subsequent years. Indeed it touched upon the very soul of science: a Faustian struggle between good and evil, between peaceful uses of scientific discovery and destructive ones and on the interface of the political and scientific worlds.

Review: Volume 21 - Science - History

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Qikun Xue (Physics & Mathematics)

Zhonghe Zhou (Earth Sciences)

Dongyuan Zhao (Materials Science)

Lei Guo (Information Sciences)

Shining Zhu (Physics & Mathematics)

Zhengtang Guo (Earth Sciences)

Bao-lian Su (Materials Science)

Ru Huang (Information Sciences)

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Featured articles

Experimental measurement of the quantum geometric tensor using coupled qubits in diamond

Geometry and topology are fundamental concepts, which underlie a wide range of fascinating physical phenomena such as topological states of matter and topological defects. In quantum mechanics, the geometry of quantum states is fully captured by the quantum geometric tensor. Using a qubit formed by an NV center in diamond, we perform the first experimental measurement of the complete quantum geometric tensor.

Mass production of 2D materials by intermediate-assisted grinding exfoliation

The scalable and high-efficiency production of 2D materials is a prerequisite to their commercial use. Currently, only graphene and graphene oxide can be produced on a ton scale, and the inability to produce other 2D materials on such a large scale hinders their technological applications.

Changes in China’s lakes: climate and human impacts

Lakes have played a critical role in providing water and ecosystem services for people and other organisms in China for millennia. However, accelerating climate change and economic boom have resulted in unprecedented changes in these valuable lakes. Using Landsat images covering the entity of the country, we explored the changes in China’s lakes and the associated driving forces over the last 30 years.

Steering elementary steps towards efficient alkaline hydrogen evolution via size-dependent Ni/NiO nanoscale heterosurfaces

Alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), consisting of Volmer and Heyrovsky/Tafel steps, requires extra energy for water dissociation, leading to more sluggish kinetics than acidic HER. Despite the advances in electrocatalysts, how to combine active sites to synergistically promote both steps and understand the underlying mechanism remain largely unexplored.

Ultrabithorax is a key regulator for the dimorphism of wings, a main cause for the outbreak of planthoppers in rice

Rice planthoppers, the most devastating rice pests, occur in two wing forms: the short-wing form for rapid population growth and long-wing form for long-distance migration, which together devise the mechanism for outbreak. Here we show that Ubx is a key regulator for switching between the long- and short-wing forms of the rice planthoppers.

A general end-to-end diagnosis framework for manufacturing systems

The manufacturing sector is envisioned to be heavily influenced by artificial-intelligence-based technologies with the extraordinary increases in computational power and data volumes. A central challenge in the manufacturing sector lies in the requirement of a general framework to ensure satisfied diagnosis and monitoring performances in different manufacturing applications.

History of Cannabis and Its Preparations in Saga, Science, and Sobriquet

Cannabis sativa L. is possibly one of the oldest plants cultivated by man, but has remained a source of controversy throughout its history. Whether pariah or panacea, this most versatile botanical has provided a mirror to medicine and has pointed the way in the last two decades toward a host of medical challenges from analgesia to weight loss through the discovery of its myriad biochemical attributes and the endocannabinoid system wherein many of its components operate.

This study surveys the history of cannabis, its genetics and preparations. A review of cannabis usage in Ancient Egypt will serve as an archetype, while examining first mentions from various Old World cultures and their pertinence for contemporary scientific investigation. Cannabis historians of the past have provided promising clues to potential treatments for a wide array of currently puzzling medical syndromes including chronic pain, spasticity, cancer, seizure disorders, nausea, anorexia, and infectious disease that remain challenges for 21st century medicine. Information gleaned from the history of cannabis administration in its various forms may provide useful points of departure for research into novel delivery techniques and standardization of cannabis-based medicines that will allow their prescription for treatment of these intractable medical conditions.

Bentham Science is a science, technology, and medical (STM) publisher, providing academic researchers and industrial professionals with the latest information in diverse fields of science and technology. Our peer-reviewed scholarly journals and books have an ever-increasing readership of millions of researchers worldwide.

Bentham Science currently publishes more than 100 journals in both electronic and printed formats. Our journals cover various disciplines in pharmaceutical research and development, medical subspecialties, engineering, technology, and social sciences. The journals are indexed in recognized indexing agencies, such as Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, MEDLINE/Index Medicus, PubMed, Scopus, Chemical Abstracts, EMBASE. . Read More

21 Science-Backed Study Tips to Ace a Test

While barricading yourself in the library might be the tried-and-true (or at least tried) method of studying, there is a better way — in fact, there are at least 21 of them. Go forth and fearlessly take on tests with these science-backed study tips to turn AP Misery into AP Mastery.

1. Study when sleepy

Bedtime stories are for kids. Instead of reading the Berenstain Bears, try studying for a few minutes right before hitting the hay.

During sleep, your brain strengthens new memories and puts them into long-term storage, so there’s a good chance you’ll remember whatever you review right before dozing off. (Just try not to bring work into your actual bed, since the distraction can make it harder to get a good night’s sleep.) Huguet M, et al. (2019). Overnight sleep benefits both neutral and negative direct associative and relational memory. DOI: 10.3758/s13415-019-00746-8

2. Space it out

A new learning technique called “spaced repetition” involves breaking up information into small chunks and reviewing them consistently over a long period of time.

Don’t try to memorize the entire periodic table in one sitting. Instead, learn a few rows each day and review each lesson before starting anything new. Tabibian B, et al. (2019). Enhancing human learning via spaced repetition optimization. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1815156116

3. Create a mnemonic device

Turn the details you need to remember into an easy-to-recite acronym. For example, remember the order of mathematic operations PEMDAS (parenthesis, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction) with this catchy mnemonic device: Please (P) excuse (E) my (M) dear (D) Aunt (A) Sally (S).

4. Write it down

Put those third-grade penmanship lessons to good use. Research suggests that we store information more securely when we write it by hand than when we type it on a computer keyboard. Start by recopying the most important notes from the semester onto a new sheet of paper. Mueller PA, et al. (2014). The pen is mightier than the keyboard: Advantages of longhand over laptop note taking. DOI: 10.1177/0956797614524581

5. Put yourself to the test

Quizzing yourself may be one of the best ways to prepare for the real deal. Get into the routine of practicing with a cheat sheet (notes) and then without it. Use a stopwatch to simulate the test time limit.

It may seem obvious, but the best strategy is to focus on the hard stuff first so it doesn’t trip you up on the test.

6. Shout it out

The dual action of seeing and hearing information at the same time helps seal it into your memory. So shout those notes out loud! We just can’t guarantee you won’t get thrown out of the library. Forrin ND, et al. (2017). This time it’s personal: The memory benefit of hearing oneself. DOI: 10.1080/09658211.2017.1383434

7. Come together (right now)

Group work doesn’t fly with everyone, but for those who benefit from a little team effort, a study group is the way to go. Pick a few studious pals and get together every few days to review the material.

Put one person in charge of delegating tasks (snack duty, music selection) and keeping the group on target with its goals.

8. Walk backward

It might sound strange, but a backward walk is like hitting your brain’s rewind button. In one study, people who walked backward were better able to remember a video they’d watched than those who walked forward or stood still. Aksentijevic A., et al. (2018). It takes me back: The mnemonic time-travel effect. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2018.10.007

What is this strange phenom? The study authors call it the “mnemonic time-travel effect.”

9. Switch it up

Don’t stick to one topic. Instead, study a bunch of different material in one sitting. This technique helps prepare you to use the right strategy for finding the solution to a problem.

For example, if you do several division problems in a row, you’ll know when you begin each problem that it’ll require some division. But doing a series of problems that could require multiplication, division, or addition means you have to stop and think about which strategy is best.

10. Treat yo’self!

A healthy holiday cookie, a walk around the block, 5 minutes on Twitter — whatever floats your boat. Knowing there’s a little reward waiting at the end of a few more pages makes it easier to beat procrastination while slogging through a semester’s worth of notes.

11. Drink up

Sorry, not that kind of drink. Instead, hit the local coffee shop for something caffeine-filled, whether your beverage of choice is coffee or tea. Research suggests the amount of caffeine in a cup or two of coffee boosts attention and alertness.

Hate the caffeine jitters? Decaf coffee also wakes up your brain, but without the jolt. Haskell-Ramsay CF, et al. (2018). The acute effects of caffeinated black coffee on cognition and mood in healthy young and older adults. DOI: 10.3390/nu10101386

12. Take a time-out

Taking time to plan is one of the most important skills a student can have. Don’t just start the week with the vague goal of studying for a history exam. Instead, break up that goal into smaller tasks.

Pencil it in on the calendar like a regular class. For example, allot 1 to 3 p.m. each day to review 50 years’ worth of info.

13. Work it out

Get leaner and brainier at the same time. Research has shown that just a half hour of aerobic exercise may improve your brain-processing speed and other important mental abilities. Jog some laps around the block or run the stairs a few times and see if you don’t come back sharper. Tam ND. (2013). Improvement of processing speed in executive function immediately following an increase in cardiovascular activity. DOI: 10.1155/2013/212767

14. Gimme a break

The KitKat guys said it, and so does science: Taking breaks — say, every 75 to 90 minutes — can boost productivity and improve your ability to focus on a single task. For a real productivity charge, step away from the screen and break a sweat with a midday gym session.

15. Daaaance to the music

As anyone who’s ever relied on the Biebs to make it through an all-night study session knows, music can help you beat stress.

It’s still not clear which type of music is best — classical, country, rock, or hip-hop — so go with your favorite. Give those biology notes a soundtrack and feel at least some stress slide away. de Witte M, et al. (2019). Effects of music interventions on stress-related outcomes: A systematic review and two meta-analyses. DOI: 10.1080/17437199.2019.1627897

16. Say “om”

Just before staring at a piece of paper for 3 hours, direct your gaze inward for 3 minutes. Research suggests meditation can boost attention span and improve focus. And if you do it often enough, you can keep those intellectual gains well past the college years. Zanesco AP, et al. (2018). Cognitive aging and long-term maintenance of attentional improvements following meditation training. DOI: 10.1007/s41465-018-0068-1

While most studies focus on regular meditation, there’s no harm in trying it out for a few minutes now and then to calm pre-test jitters.

17. Doze off

When there’s a textbook full of equations to memorize, it can be tempting to stay up all night committing them to memory (or trying to). But all-nighters rarely lead to an automatic A. In fact, burning the midnight oil can backfire, leading to more forgetfulness and greater sensitivity to stress.

In the days leading up to a big exam, aim to get those 7 to 9 hours a night. Research has shown that a solid night of sleep improves declarative memory, also known as the ability to remember facts on that big exam. Potkin KT, et al. (2012). Sleep improves memory: The effect of sleep on long term memory in early adolescence. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042191

18. Feel free to inhale

Dusty old library again… or spa day? In one study, catching a whiff of lavender improved participants’ memory test scores after they were exposed to stress. Skip the frantic last-minute review and try a few minutes of aromatherapy instead. Chamine I, et al. (2016). Aroma effects on physiologic and cognitive function following acute stress: A mechanism investigation. DOI: 10.1089/acm.2015.0349

Best Papers in IJHSS in 2013

Jonbenet and Maddie: Case Studies in the Ethical Deficit of Contemporary Journalism
Professor Michael Tracey

Raising Expectations for Pre-Service Teacher Use of Technology
Lisa D. Murley, Pamela Jukes, Rebecca Stobaugh

Raising Expectations for Pre-Service Teacher Use of Technology
Lisa D. Murley, Pamela Jukes, Rebecca Stobaugh

Doing the Right Thing: Determinism, Moral Responsibility, and Agency
Shirley Matile Ogletree

The Impact of a Country’s Employment Protection Legislation on its Economic Prosperity
Laura Muller, Paul D. Berger

Statistical Analysis of the Demand of Employment of the Graduates from Andalusia
Genoveva Millán Vázquez de la Torre, Ana Hernández Román, Juan Manuel Arjona Fuentes

The Future Engaging Complexity and Policy: Afghanistan Citizen Allegiance Model
Liz Johnson, Mirsad Hadzikadic, Joseph Whitmeyer

The Effects of Adjustable Rate Mortgages on House Price Inflation
Albert S. Davies

A Difficulty in the Concept of Educational Sustainability
Steven Loomis, John Gunderson, Paul Spears, Doug Grove

Left and Right Matter: Political Parties and Brazilian Councilors’ Values on Social Rights
Samira Kauchakje

Cruising Yawls and Harbor Towns: Navigating the Topographies of Joseph Conrad and Anna Seghers
Dr. Kristy R. Boney

Leadership Recipes for Promoting Students’ Creativity
Kuan Chen Tsai

Religious-Spiritual Issues in Couples and Family Therapy: A Developmental Perspective
J. Roland Fleck

The Impact of College Experience on Future Job Seekers’ Diversity Readiness

The Negative Health Impacts of Globalization: Personal Health Responsibility and the Epidemic of Non-Communicable Diseases in Pacific Island Nations
Philip Szmedra

Review on the Role of Ports in the Development of a Nation ☆

The transportation sector is a strong factor in terms of economic and regional balanced development, as well as also having a great influence on national integration to the world economic market. India has a rich history of trade across seas. Ports constitute an important economic activity in coastal areas. The higher the throughput of goods and passengers year-on-year, the more infrastructure, provisions and associated services are required. These will bring varying degrees of benefits to the economy and to the country. Ports are also important for the support of economic activities in the hinterland since they act as a crucial connection between sea and land transport. As a supplier of jobs, ports do not only serve an economic but also a social function. In terms of load carried, seaway transportation is the cheapest and most effective transportation system compared to other systems. Industries require a safe and cheap means of exporting finished goods and importing raw materials. Hence the majority of industries in the world are located in the coastal belts, in the vicinity of major ports. These industries in turn, influence the lives of the employees and indirect benefactors. This report seeks to study the role played by ports in the development of a nation.

Review: Volume 21 - Science - History

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International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies ® (IJCSIT ® ) is an online peer reviewed journal launched by TECH SCIENCE PUBLICATIONS that publishes Review/Research articles which contribute new theoretical results in all areas of Computer Science, Communication Network and Information Technologies. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies (IJCSIT ® ) papers are solicited from, but not limited to the following topics:

  • Theory of Parallel Processing and Distributed Computing
  • Foundations of High-performance Computing
  • Artifial Intelligence& Pattern/Image Recognition
  • Neural Network
  • Data Base Management Systems (DBMS) & Information Retrieval
  • Digital Signal Processing
  • Ad-Hoc, Mobile, Wireless Networks and Mobile Computing
  • Mobile Agent Computing
  • Quality of Services and Communication Protocol
  • 3G/4G Network Evolution
  • CDMA/GSM Communication Protocol
  • Mobile Computing for e-Commerce
  • Cryptography and Foundation of Computer Security
  • Authentication/Authorization Issues
  • PKI(Public Key Infrastructures)
  • IDS/Firewall, Anti-Spam mail, Anti-virus issues
  • Wireless Security System
  • e-Business Applications
  • Advanced Numerical Algorithms
  • Scientific and Engineering Computing
  • Hybrid Computational Methods
  • Complex Systems: Modeling and Simulation
  • Problem Solving Environments
  • Data Visualization and Virtual Reality
  • Web- and Grid-based Computing and Simulation
  • Hardware/Software Co-design and VLSI Support
  • Possibility Theory, Bayes Network and Hidden Markov Models
  • Computational Intelligence, Granular Computing and Soft Computing
  • New Algorithmic Approaches to Computational Kernels and Applications
  • Architectures and Computation Models, Compiler, Hardware and OS Issues
  • Computational Science Aspects of Data Mining, Information Retrieval and Text Mining
  • Any other topics relevant to latest trends in Computer Science and Information Technologies

International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies (IJCSIT ® ) is published using an open access publishing model, which makes the full-text of all peer-reviewed papers freely available online with no subscription or registration barriers.

International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies (IJCSIT ® ) employs a paperless, electronic submission and evaluation system to promote a rapid turnaround in the peer review process. Fairness and transparency of the review process are pursued by traditional and innovative means, including the possibility of reviewers of accepted papers to disclose their identity and publish a brief commentary together with the article.

Frequency: 6 issues per year

ISSN: 0975–9646 (online version)

Subject Category: Computer and Information Science & Technology


Much debate and polarisation exist regarding the impact of online social technologies on the mental wellbeing of young people.


To systematically review and synthesise current empirical research on this topic, identifying both the beneficial and harmful effects of online communication and social media technology amongst young people.


A systematic narrative review of research published between January 2003 and April 2013, retrieved using rigorous searching on eight bibliographic databases. Results were then subject to review using a quality appraisal tool and a narrative synthesis methodology. A theoretical framework was developed for the synthesis using concepts from mental health and communication studies literature.


Systematic searching retrieved 43 original research papers investigating or exploring the effects of online technologies on adolescent mental well-being or related concept(s). The benefits of using online technologies were reported as increased self-esteem, perceived social support, increased social capital, safe identity experimentation and increased opportunity for self-disclosure. Harmful effects were reported as increased exposure to harm, social isolation, depression and cyber-bullying. The majority of studies reported either mixed or no effect(s) of online social technologies on adolescent wellbeing.


This systematic narrative review has revealed contradictory evidence while revealing an absence of robust causal research regarding the impact of social media on mental wellbeing of young people. Online technologies are increasingly being used for health and social care purposes, but further research is required to give confidence that these are appropriately designed to promote the mental health care and support of young people.

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

The information on this page is current as of April 1 2020.

For the most up-to-date version of CFR Title 21, go to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR).

Subpart B - Quality System Requirements

Sec. 820.22 Quality audit.

Each manufacturer shall establish procedures for quality audits and conduct such audits to assure that the quality system is in compliance with the established quality system requirements and to determine the effectiveness of the quality system. Quality audits shall be conducted by individuals who do not have direct responsibility for the matters being audited. Corrective action(s), including a reaudit of deficient matters, shall be taken when necessary. A report of the results of each quality audit, and reaudit(s) where taken, shall be made and such reports shall be reviewed by management having responsibility for the matters audited. The dates and results of quality audits and reaudits shall be documented.

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