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|Laos is located Southeastern Asia, northeast of Thailand, west of Vietnam. The topography of Laos is largely mountainous, with elevations above 500 meters typically characterized by steep terrain, narrow river valleys, and low agricultural potential. This mountainous landscape extends across most of the north of the country, except for the plain of Vientiane and the Plain of Jars in Xiangkhoang Province. The southern "panhandle" of the country contains large level areas in Savannakhét and Champasak provinces that are well suited for extensive paddy rice cultivation and livestock raising. Much of Khammouan Province and the eastern part of all the southern provinces are mountainous. Together, the alluvial plains and terraces of the Mekong and its tributaries cover only about 20 percent of the land area. |
Climate: Laos has a tropical monsoon climate, with a pronounced rainy season from May through October, a cool dry season from November through February, and a hot dry season in March and April. Generally, monsoons occur at the same time across the country, although that time may vary significantly from one year to the next. Rainfall also varies regionally, with the highest amounts-- 3,700 millimeters annually--recorded on the Bolovens Plateau in Champasak Province. City rainfall stations have recorded that Savannakhét averages 1,440 millimeters of rain annually; Vientiane receives about 1,700 millimeters, and Louangphrabang (Luang Prabang) receives about 1,360 millimeters. Rainfall is not always adequate for rice cultivation, however, and the relatively high average precipitation conceals years where rainfall may be only half or less of the norm, causing significant declines in rice yields. Such droughts often are regional, leaving production in other parts of the country unaffected. Temperatures range from highs around 40°C along the Mekong in March and April to lows of 5°C or less in the uplands of Xiangkhoang and Phôngsali in January.
Vientiane ( / v i ˌ ɛ n t i ˈ ɑː n / vi- EN -ti- AHN ,  French: [vjɛ̃tjan] Lao: ວຽງຈັນ , pronounced [ʋíːəŋ tɕàn] ) is the capital and largest city of Laos, on the banks of the Mekong River near the border with Thailand. Vientiane became the capital in 1573, due to fears of a Burmese invasion, but was later looted, then razed to the ground in 1827 by the Siamese (Thai).  Vientiane was the administrative capital during French rule and, due to economic growth in recent times, is now the economic center of Laos. The city had a population of 948,477 as of the 2020 Census.
Vientiane is noted as the home of the most significant national monuments in Laos – That Luang – which is a known symbol of Laos and an icon of Buddhism in Laos. Other significant Buddhist temples in Laos can be found there as well, such as Haw Phra Kaew, which formerly housed the Emerald Buddha.
The city hosted the 25th Southeast Asian Games in December 2009, celebrating 50 years of the Southeast Asian Games.
Provinces of Laos Map
Laos (officially, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic) is divided into 17 administrative provinces (Khoueng) and 1 prefecture (Kampheng nakhon). In alphabetical order, the administrative provinces are: attapu, Bokeo, Bolikhamxai, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouan, Louangnamtha, Louangphabang, Oudomxai, Phongsali, Salavan, Savannakhet, Sainyabuli, Sekong, Vientiane Province, Xiengkhouang and Xaisomboun. Vientiane Prefecture comprises of the capital city of Laos. These provinces are further subdivided into districts and smaller subdivisions.
Located along the banks of the Mekong River, is Vientiane –the capital, the largest and the most populous city of Laos. Vientiane serves as the administrative and economic center of Laos.
Laos profile - timeline
1893 - Laos becomes a French protectorate until 1945, when it is briefly occupied by the Japanese towards the end of World War II.
1946 - French rule over Laos is resumed.
1950 - Laos is granted semi-autonomy as an associated state within the French Union.
1954 - Laos gains full independence as a constitutional monarchy. Civil war breaks out between royalists and the communist group, the Pathet Lao.
1960s - Laos subject to extensive aerial bombardment by the United States in an attempt to destroy North Vietnamese sanctuaries and to rupture the supply lines known as the Ho Chi Minh trail. It's estimated that more bombs were dropped on Laos than were used during the whole of World War II.
1973 - Vientiane ceasefire agreement divides Laos between the communists and the royalists.
1975 - The Pathet Lao - renamed the Lao People's Front - seizes power. King Savang Vatthana abdicates - he is later arrested and dies in captivity. The Lao People's Democratic Republic is proclaimed, with the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP) the only legal political party. Kaysone Phomvihane becomes prime minister. "Socialist transformation" of the economy is launched.
1979 - Food shortages and the flight of hundreds of thousands of refugees to Thailand leads the government to modify its approach. Some private enterprise within agriculture is permitted.
1986 - Encouraged by the Gorbachev reforms in the Soviet Union, Laos introduces market-oriented reforms.
1989 - First elections held since 1975. All candidates have to be approved by the LPRP. Communists retain power.
1991 - Security and cooperation pact signed with Thailand. A new constitution is endorsed. Kaysone Phomvihane becomes president, Khamtay Siphandon becomes prime minister.
1992 - President Phomvihane dies. Siphandon becomes head of the LPRP.
1994 - "Friendship bridge" over the Mekong linking Laos and Thailand is opened.
1995 - US lifts its 20-year aid embargo.
1997 - Laos becomes a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean). The Asian financial crisis decimates the value of the Lao currency, the kip.
1998 - Khamtay Siphandon becomes president.
2000 - A series of bomb blasts hits the capital - the authorities blame anti-government groups based abroad. Celebrations of 25 years of communist rule take place in Vientiane in December.
2000 - Government embarks on decentralization process, granting more autonomy and budgetary responsibilities to provinces.
2001 March - Khamtay Siphandon re-elected president.
2001 April - International Monetary Fund approves a new three-year loan for Laos worth $40 million. IMF officials expect the loan to help strengthen macroeconomic stability and reduce poverty "through growth with equity".
2001 April - Parliament introduces death sentence for possession of more than 500g of heroin.
2001 December - UN World Food Programme (WFP) launches three-year initative to feed 70,000 malnourished children in Laos.
2002 February - Parliamentary elections. All but one of the 166 candidates are from the governing Lao People's Revolutionary Party.
2003 June - Two European journalists and their American translator arrested after making contact with Hmong ethnic group. Pair found guilty of obstructing security forces and briefly jailed.
US-based Lao exile group, the Fact Finding Commission, says the Lao Citizens Movement for Democracy (LCMD) has started a revolution in 11 provinces. The government dismisses the claim.
The LCMD says it has killed three soldiers in clashes. The government denies the claim.
2004 November - As chair of the Association of South East Asian Nations (Asean), Laos hosts the organisation's summit.
2005 February - US establishes Normal Trade Relations, ending protracted period of punitive import taxes.
2005 April - World Bank approves loans for Nam Theun Two hydroelectric dam project. Dam is expected to produce electricity for export critics are concerned about its environmental, social impact.
2005 November - Foundation stone of Nam Theun Two hydroelectric dam is laid.
2006 June - Choummaly Sayasone succeeds Khamtay Siphandone as president. The former vice president became leader of the ruling communists in March.
2006 December - More than 400 members of the Hmong ethnic group surrender to the authorities. They are among several groups of Hmong who have been living in the jungle as fugitives since 1975, when the pro-US government they supported was defeated by the communists.
2007 June - US prosecutors charge nine people with plotting a coup in Laos, including former general Vang Pao, a prominent member of the ethnic Hmong group who emigrated to the US in the 1970s.
2007 July - California court order the release on bail of former general Vang Pao, accused of plotting the overthrow of Laos' communist government.
2008 January - Laos takes steps to become full member of the World Trade Organization.
2008 May - Some 69% of children in Laos lack basic health care, Save the Children charity reports.
2009 March - Thai Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn opens a rail connection over the Mekong river, linking Thailand and Laos.
2009 December - Thailand forcibly repatriates more than 4,000 ethnic Hmong asylum seekers back to Laos.
2010 December - PM Bouasone Bouphavanh resigns, citing "family problems", and is replaced by National Assembly president Thongsing Thammavong. Analysts say factional disputes within the ruling party are the likely reason.
2011 January - New stock market opens in Vientiane as part of tentative experiment with capitalism.
Former Laos royal general and leader of Hmong ethnic group Vang Pao dies in exile in US, aged 81.
2011 June - President Choummaly is given a further five-year term by parliament.
2012 July - Hillary Clinton becomes the first US secretary of state to visit Laos for 57 years. The legacy of the Vietnam War and a controversial dam project are on her agenda.
2012 November - Laos approves plans to build a massive dam at Xayaburi, on the lower Mekong river, despite opposition from environmentalists and neighbours Cambodia and Vietnam.
2013 August - European parliamentarians draw attention to the disappearance of activist Sombath Somphone, last seen at a police checkpoint.
2014 May - Several senior officials are killed in a plane crash in northern Laos, including Defence Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Douangchay Phichit, Security Minister Thongbanh Sengaphone and Vientiane Mayor Soukanh Mahalath.
2016 April - National Assembly at its five-year congress appoints Bounnhang Vorachit as president and leader of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP), succeeding Choummaly Sayasone.
2016 September - President Barack Obama becomes the first sitting US president to visit Laos.
US commits 90 million US dollars over three years to help clear unexploded bombs the US dropped on Laos during the Vietnam War.
2017 September - Conservationists warn that Laos has become the fastest growing ivory market in the world, undermining the international effort to stop the illegal trade.
Official name: Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Capital city: Vientiane
Area: 236,800 sq km
Major languages: Lao, French, English
Time zone: UTC+7 (Indochina Time)
– Source: CIA World Fact Book
1. Laos is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia. A landlocked country is surrounded by land and does not have access to the open sea. Presently, there are 45 landlocked countries in the world as well as five partially recognised states.
– Source: CIA World Fact Book, The Telegraph
2. The first humans are believed to have inhabited Laos since at least 8000 BC when a Neolithic culture of hunter-gatherers emerged.
– Source: Lonely Planet
3. The Mekong River runs through Laos. At 4,350km, it is the longest river in Southeast Asia, the 7th longest in Asia, and the 12th longest in the world.
– Source: Britannica
4. Despite being landlocked, Laos is home to an area where the Mekong River spreads to a 14km-wide network of streams creating an archipelago of islands called Si Phan Don, which translates as Four Thousand Islands.
– Source: Rough Guides
5. Irrawaddy dolphins (known for their bulging forehead and short beak) used to be widely found in the Mekong River in Laos. Tragically, in 2016, the WWF announced that only three dolphins were left in Laos, meaning the species was “functionally extinct in Laos”.
– Source: WWF
6. In 1893, Laos became a French protectorate. It was briefly occupied by Japan in 1945, then the French resumed control in 1946.
– Source: BBC News
7. In 1954, Laos gained independence from France, although it immediately slipped into a civil war between the monarchy and communist forces.
– Source: BBC News
8. The Laos flag is horizontally striped red-blue-red with the red representing the blood of those seeking freedom and independence, and the blue representing the promise of future prosperity as well as the Mekong River. The central white disk references Japan’s flag, as the Japanese encouraged the Lao independence movement in the Second World War.
– Source: Britannica, CIA World Fact Book
9. During the Vietnam War from 1964 to 1973, the US carried out unprovoked bombing raids on the neutral country of Laos in an attempt to destroy North Vietnamese sanctuaries and disrupt the supply lines known as the Ho Chi Minh trail. The raid killed 200,000 civilians – one-tenth of the population of Laos.
– Source: History Channel
10. Laos is the most heavily bombed nation in history. It’s estimated that more bombs were dropped on Laos during the Vietnam War than were dropped during the whole of the Second World War.
– Source: History Channel
11. Laos is still dealing with millions of unexploded bombs from these attacks. A third of the bombs dropped failed to explode on impact and have since killed or injured 20,000 people – an average of 500 victims a year.
– Source: The Guardian
12. Craters from the American airstrikes are often used as fishponds or for irrigating crops in rice fields in Laos.
– Source: National Geographic
13. Likewise, there are examples of excavated bomb casings being used in basic structures. The casings are also a form of valuable scrap metal.
– Source: National Geographic
14. During the American bombardment of Laos, a system of over 450 caves located sheltered up to 23,000 people. The caves had previously been used by communist forces as shelter.
– Source: Lonely Planet
15. In 1975, the Lao People’s Front overthrew the monarchy and took control of Laos proclaiming the Lao People’s Democratic Republic with the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party (LPRP) as the only legal political party. Years of isolation ensued.
– Source: BBC News
16. Today, Laos remains one of the world’s few communist states. The only others are China, Cuba, Vietnam and nominally North Korea (although technically its government doesn’t refer to itself as communist).
– Source: History Channel
17. Recently, the country has begun to open up and in 2016, President Barack Obama became the first sitting US president to visit Laos.
– Source: New York Times
18. The UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Plain of Jars is comprised of over 2,100 tubular-shaped stone jars that were used for funerals during the Iron Age from 500 BC to 500 AD.
– Source: UNESCO
19. Buddhism was introduced to Laos in the 13th or early 14th centuries. Around 60% of the population is Buddhist.
– Source: Lonely Planet
20. Every Buddhist male in Laos is expected to become a monk for at least a short period in his life. Ideally, this would be just after he finishes school but before he starts a career or marries. During this time they are known as a náirn or novices.
– Source: Lonely Planet
21. Laos has a nationwide curfew where nearly all bars, restaurants and nightclubs are expected to close by midnight. This is more strictly enforced in the UNESCO World Heritage Site town of Luang Prabang.
– Source: Rough Guide to Laos (2013) DK: London, The Independent
22. People in Laos greet each other by putting their hands together in a prayer-like manner known as the nop.
– Source: Lonely Planet
23. Laos was once known as Lan Xang which translates as “The Land of a Million Elephants.” Unfortunately, today there are thought to be just 800 elephants remaining, of which half are kept in captivity.
– Source: National Public Radio
Every effort has been made to verify these facts about Laos. However, if you find an error or have any questions, please contact us.
Key Facts & Information
- The Lao name “Muang Lao” means Lao Country.
- The English name Laos was given by the French in the late 1800s.
- Laos is the plural form of the Lao people, the dominant ethnic population in the region.
GEOGRAPHY & CLIMATE
- Laos is a landlocked country, meaning it is entirely surrounded by land.
- To the northwest of Laos is Myanmar and China.
- To its east is Vietnam. borders Laos at the southeast.
- Thailand is at the western and southwestern sides of Laos.
- The Mekong River makes up a large portion of the western border.
- Laos is made up mainly of mountains and forests.
- The highest peak of Laos is Phou Bia which is at 9,245 feet.
- Laos has a tropical savanna climate.
- The oldest modern human fossil in Southeast Asia was found in northern Laos. the oldest modern human fossil found to date in Southeast Asia.
- Archaeological artifacts suggest that agricultural communities were established in Laos in the 4th millennium BC.
- Fast forward to the 14th century, the kingdom of Lan Xang was established by Lao prince Fa Ngum.
- Lan Xang means “Million Elephants”.
- Lan Xang became the trade center of Laos during the reign of Fa Ngum’s son.
- In 1520, the capital of Luang Prabang was replaced by Vientiane when Photisarath became the ruler.
- In 1548, the national symbol of Laos which is Pha That Luang was constructed.
- In 1636, what was known as Laos’ golden age began under the leadership of Sourigna Vongsa.
- Late in the 19th century, the Chinese Black Flag Army sacked and pillaged Luang Prabang.
- After France came to the rescue, the territories of Laos gradually became part of the Protectorate of French Indochina.
- Laos became a unified nation with King Sisavang Vong of Luang Phrabang as leader.
- During the Second World War, Laos was occupied by France, Thailand, and Imperial Japan.
- Laos briefly declared independence when Japan retreated but the French immediately swooped in to reoccupy the country.
- During the First Indochina War, the Indochinese Communist Party created an organisation called Pathet Lao to wage war against the French and gain independence from them.
- The French gave in and Laos became semi-autonomous in 1950.
- Laos gained full independence on October 22, 1953, Laos became a constitutional monarchy.
- Laos played a key role in the Vietnam War when some Laos territories were occupied by North Vietnam.
- In 1975, the Lao government was overthrown by the Pathet Lao and Laos officially became the Lao People’s Democratic Republic.
- The people of Laos are divided into three ethnic groups: Lao Loum (lowland people) Lao Theung (midland people) and Lao Soung (highland people).
- Lao is the official language of Laos.
- Lao is the language of the Tai linguistic group.
- The Lao alphabet was derived from Khmer script.
- Because of its French colonial past, Laos uses French in its government, education, and commerce. is the dominant religion in Laos, specifically, Theravada Buddhism.
- Literacy rate in Laos is more than two-thirds of the population.
- Theravada Buddhism is very influential in the culture of Laos – from their literature to their language.
- The national musical instrument of Laos is the khaen which is a type of bamboo pipe.
- The khaen is used in the country’s popular folk music called lam.
- As for food, sticky rice is the staple food in Laos.
- Sticky rice also holds a certain religious and cultural significance, like when farmers in Luang Prabang plant this variety of rice to commemorate their dead parents.
- In daily life, Lao women wear a traditional hand-woven silk skirt called sinh.
- Laos doesn’t have a very big cinema industry. The country has only three movie theaters as of 2018.
- The national sport of Laos is Muay Lao which is similar to Thailand’s Muay Thai.
- Lao National Day is held on December 2nd every year to commemorate the founding of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic in 1975.
- A special kind of new year celebration called the Lao New Year is held for three days in April.
- The Lao New Year is massively celebrated through Luang Prabang festivities.
- A celebration after the rice harvest called the Boun Khoun Khao is held to make way for good fortune for the next harvest.
- A fertility festival called Boun Bang Fai is held in May before the start of the rainy season.
- The Boun Bang Fai is also called the Rocket Festival because rockets are fired into the air to request for rain from the gods.
This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Laos across 231 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Laos worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, commonly known as Laos or Muang Lao, which is a Southeast Asian country situated at the center of the Indochinese peninsula. It is the only country in Southeast Asia bordered by land on all sides. Vientiane is the capital and biggest city of Laos.
Complete List Of Included Worksheets
- Laos Facts
- Locating Laos
- Fast Facts
- Make It True
- History Review
- Creating Captions
- French Influence
- Festival Blanks
- Cities of Laos
- Comparing Countries
- Journey Around Laos
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Use With Any Curriculum
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Like Nothing Else on Earth
From the famed limestone islands of Ha Long Bay to the UNESCO-protected, colonial architecture of Luang Prabang, explore Southeast Asia’s most spectacular gems on our Vietnam & Laos Biking trip.
A Clash of Kingdoms
Over the years, Lan Xang armies won and lost territory from the Khmer, Burmese, Vietnamese, Thai and Chinese in Yunnan. By the 17th century its holdings were quite sizable. However, its power began to crumble in 1694 when King Souligna Vongsa died without an heir. Internal strife, spurred on by various neighbours, ultimately split Lan Xang into three kingdoms: Luang Prabang in the north, Vientiane in the centre and Champassak in the south. The rivals never stopped quarrelling and were easily invaded and overrun, particularly by the Siamese who, by the end of the 18th century, controlled most of present-day Laos and Cambodia.
Siam ultimately ceded the territory of Lan Xang (and of the Khmer) to French Indochina in a bid to maintain its own independence—which worked. The French reunited the three territories and called the new protectorate Laos, from les Laos, the plural form of the Lao people. Siam retained what is now Northeast Thailand, or Issan, where many Lao people lived then and still do. Today, there are more Lao people living in Issan than in Laos itself.
Under the French, there was little real development in what they called the “land of the lotus-eaters.” Few roads were built, no universities were opened and there was little improvement in health care. The mountains posed a barrier to plantation farming and the Mekong was not suitable for merchant vessels. About the only real commercial activity was the export of opium. In all of Laos there were only a few hundred French. The colonizers preferred to import Vietnamese to staff the administration while the Chinese engaged in trade. For the average Lao peasant farmer, life was little changed.
French Indochina fell briefly to the Japanese in World War II. When Japan surrendered in 1945, the Lao Issara (“Free Laos”) movement, led by the king’s nephew, declared independence. The king, however, sided with the French and the experiment quickly ended with the French returning. In 1953, the French granted independence to the Royal Lao Government, but an offshoot of the Lao Issara, called Pathet Laos, felt it was only a puppet government so it created a resistance group backed by communist North Vietnam. When the French suffered a final defeat in Vietnam in 1954 and withdrew from Indochina, the U.S. started supplying the Royal Lao Government with arms.
Role in the Vietnam War
At the second Geneva conference in 1961-1962, Laos declared itself neutral in the hope of avoiding future international conflicts, but this too was not to be. By the 1960s Laos was dragged into the Cold War, mostly because of its geopolitical position beside Vietnam.
While the entire world watched the U.S.-Vietnam war, few knew that a “secret war” was also being waged in Laos—with even more devastating results. Laos suffered the heaviest bombings of any country in history.
At the end of the wars, there was an attempt at a coalition government between the communist Pathet Lao and the royal government, but as soon as Saigon fell in April 1975, the Pathet Lao, backed by North Vietnam, took control of Laos with little opposition. On December 2, 1975, the king was deposed from Luang Prabang, Buddhism was removed as the state religion and the communist Lao People’s Democratic Republic was established and remains the only party. In the 1990s, Buddhism was reformed and reinstated as a way to promote Lao nationalism.
The Slow Road
Chapter 11: Southeast Asia
The region between China, India, Australia, and the Pacific Ocean is known as Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia includes countries with political boundaries creating many shapes and sizes. The political borders were created through a combination of factors, including natural features, traditional tribal distinctions, colonial claims, and political agreements. The realm also has the fourth-most populous country in the world, Indonesia. Southeast Asia is a region of peninsulas and islands. The only landlocked country is the rural and remote country of Laos, which borders China, Vietnam, and Thailand. The physical geography of Southeast Asia includes beaches, bays, inlets, and gulfs. The thousands of islands and remote places allow refuge for a wide variety of cultural groups and provide havens for rebellious insurgents, modern-day pirates, and local inhabitants.
Southeast Asia can be divided into two geographic regions. The mainland portion, which is connected to India and China, extends south into what has been called the Indochina Peninsula or Indochina, a name given to the region by France. This mainland region consists of the countries of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and Myanmar (Burma). This region has been influenced historically by India and China. The islands or insular region The region consisting of the islands of Southeast Asia—Brunei, East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Singapore. to the south and east consist of nations surrounded by water. The countries in this region include Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, East Timor, and the Philippines.
Figure 11.1 Southeast Asia: The Mainland Region and the Insular Region (the Islands)
Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations
Nongovernment Organizations (NGOs) established by Lao nationals are not permitted. International NGOs have been allowed to operate since the early 1990s, but they have to be connected to a particular ministry or government organization so their activities can be monitored. Relations between some NGOs and the government have been strained, particularly over the issues of dam building and the relocation of minorities. Attempts to establish an informal NGO forum to discuss development issues have failed. Nevertheless, their presence has seen the emergence of discussions of politically related social and cultural issues, in which Lao employees participate.
Cha, D. (2003). Hmong American Concepts of Health, Healing and Conventional Medicine (pp. 4, 20, 36-37). New York & London: Routledge.
Chan, S. (1994). Hmong Means Free. Retreived September 19, 2006, from WWW Hmong Homepage http://www.hmongnet.org/publications/hmf-intro.html
Culhane-Pera, K.A., Vawter, D. E., Xiong, P., Babbitt, B., & Solberg, M. M (Eds.). (2003). Healing by Heart: Clinical and Ethical Case Stories of Hmong Families and Western Providers (pp.13, 15-16 26-27 31-47 56, 151). Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
Donnelly, N. (2006). The Hmong Community: From Laos to the Puget Sound. Retrieved September 19, 2006, from http://www.arts.wa.gov/folk-arts/hmong.shtml
Hmong Cultural Center. (2000). St. Paul, Minnesota
Can find topics such as Hmong Clans, Traditional Hmong Religion, Etiquette for Interacting with the Hmong, Information for Visitors to a Hmong Home http://www.hmongcc.org/
Retrieved September 19, 2006
Hmong National Development, Inc. & Hmong Cultural Resource Center (2003). Hmong 2000 Census Publication: Data and Analysis, pp. 4-8). Washington, D.C., St. Paul, Minnesota. Also retrieved September 19, 2006, from http://hndinc.org/content/view/41/
Keown-Bomar, J. (2004) Kinship Networks Among Hmong-American Refugees, (pp.51). New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC.
Lee, T.P., Pfeifer, M.E. (2005). Hmong 101. Retrieved September 19, 2006, from Hmong Cultural and Resource Center of Minnesota. From main page access the Online Research Library at http://www.hmonglibrary.org/
Lo, P. & Magagnini, S. Hmong Community Debates ‘Dowry’ Cap. Retrieved December 22, 2006, from New America Media, News Report.
Minnesota Council of Nonprofits. Hmong Refugee Resettlement. Retrieved December 22, 2006. Link no longer available, 2010.
Mote, S. M. (2004) Hmong and American: Stories of Transition to a Strange Land (pp.80-81, 283-286). Jefferson, North Carolina, and London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.
Queensland Health, Community Health Profile — Hmong. Retrieved September 19, 2006, from Queensland Health website. Link no longer available, 2010.
Saykao, P. (1997). Hmong Leadership: The traditional model. Retrieved September 19, 2006, from http://www.hmongnet.org/hmong-au/leader.htm
Vue, L. & Lor, K. (June 24, 2006). Personal communication.
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