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Franz Sebastian de Croix, Graf von Clerfayt, 1733-98
Franz Sebastian de Croix, Graf von Clerfayt (1733-98) was a senior Austrian general in the early years of the War of the First Coalition, and fought through the entire campaign in the Austrian Netherlands in 1792-94, before defeating a French offensive across the Rhine in 1795.
Clerfayt was born near Binche, just to the west of Charleroi in the Austria Netherlands. He entered the Imperial and Royal Army in 1753, as a Unterleutnant (2nd Lieutenant) in Infantry Regiment 30. During the Seven Years War Clerfayt fought at Prague (6 May 1757), Leuthen (5 December 1757) and Liegnitz (15 August 1760), gaining an impressive reputation, promotion to Oberst (Colonel commanding) of his regiment, and was awarded with the Maria Theresa Order.
After the Seven Years War Clerfayt resigned in protest at the Emperor Joseph II's reforms, and did not return to the army until the start of the War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778, when he was promoted to Generalmajor (Major-General). During the Austro-Turkish War of 1787-91 Clerfayt was promoted to General of Infantry (Feldzeugmeister), and was given command of a special corps that defeated the Turkish army that had invaded the Banat.
In 1792, at the start of the War of the First Coalition, Clerfayt was appointed to command an Austrian corps in the Allied army under the command of the Prussian general the Duke of Brunswick. In that capacity Clerfayt took part in the sieges of Longwy and Verdun, and was present during the Allied defeat at Valmy. In the aftermath of the French victory at Jemappes in the Austrian Netherlands Clerfayt took command of the defeated Allied army, but by the start of the 1793 campaign he had been replaced by the Prince of Saxe-Coburg.
The Allies began the campaign of 1793 with a series of victories. Clerfayt commanded a division in the army that crossed the Roer on 1 March, defeating the French in the battle of Aldenhoven (1 March 1793). He then commanded the Allied left wing in the crucial battle of Neerwinden (18 March 1793), an Allied victory that triggered the fall of General Dumouriez and the Allied recovery of Brussels.
After that dramatic start to the campaign the Allies settled down to besiege a series of French fortresses. Clerfayt played an important part in the victory at Famars (23 May 1793), which allowed the Allies to besiege Valenciennes. He then went on to command the besieging force at Quesnoy (19 August-11 September 1793), one of the last Allied victories of the year. The Allies then moved on to besiege Maubeuge, but their slow progress had given the French time to raise new armies, and on 15-16 October the Allied covering army was defeated at Wattignies. Clerfeyt had command of the Allied army on the first day of the battle, but had been joined by Saxe-Coburg on the second day.
Over the winter of 1793-94 the Allies reorganised their armies. At first it was suggested that Clerfayt could take overall command, but the Duke of York, commanding the British contingent, refused to serve under someone of such comparatively low social rank. The British Government then decided that they wanted the Duke to operate alongside Saxe-Coburg in the centre of the Allied line, and so the British moved east, while Clerfayt moved west to take command of the Allied right wing, in western Flanders.
This put him directly in the way of the main French offensive of 1794. On 24 April, while Saxe-Coburg besieged Landrecies, three French armies invaded Flanders, starting from Dunkirk, Cassel and Lille. Clerfayt had been pulled south from his base at Tournai by a French attack on the small force linking his left wing to the main Allied army, but even when he returned to the front the Allies were badly outnumbered. Clerfayt was attacked and defeated at Mouscron (29 April 1794) while preparing to make an attempt to lift the siege of Menin (27-30 April 1794).
This defeat forced the Allies to send reinforcements under the Duke of York west to Flanders in an attempt to restore the situation. Clerfayt took up a position to the north of the Duke, facing west towards the French on a line that ran roughly from Courtrai to Tournai. On 10 May a French attack on the southern part of the Allied line was repulsed at Willems, but on 11 May Clerfayt was attacked and defeated at Courtrai, and was forced to retreat north.
The Allied line in Flanders was now broken in two, and Saxe-Coburg was forced to move west with his main army. On 17-18 May Clerfayt commanded the extreme right wing of the Allied army that was defeated at Tourcoing, and was blamed by some for his slow progress towards and across the Lys River.
On 22 May the French attacked the main Allied army at Tournai. The French were defeated, but after the battle the Emperor Francis II decided to return to Vienna and leave Saxe-Coburg and his brother the Archduke Charles to conduct the campaign. Clerfayt remained on the right of the Allied line, where during the first half of June the French besieged and captured Ypres. Clerfayt made two attempts to lift the siege, without success.
While Clerfayt was busy around Ypres, Saxe-Coburg was forced to move east in an attempt to life the siege of Charleroi. On 24 June this attempt failed (Battle of Fleurus), and the entire Allied position in Belgium began to crumble. As Saxe-Coburg retreated north to Brussels, Clerfayt and the Duke of York agreed to swap places. The Duke moving west and Clerfayt east to bring all of the Austrian forces together. This move made it easier for the Allied army to pull apart. On 15 July General Jourdan captured Louvain, and the Austrians began to retreat east. The Anglo-Dutch and Austrian armies were no longer firmly connected.
On 9 August Coburg resigned, and Clerfayt was appointed to replace him. Clerfayt's orders were to defend Luxembourg, Mainz and Mannheim, and made no mention of the Austrian Netherlands. Despite this Clerfayt suggested a coordinated advance to save Valenciennes and Condé, and meet with the Duke of York on 1 September to arrange this, but the fall of those fortresses ended that plan.
By the middle of September Clerfayt's line ran along the Meuse, from Ruremonde at the right to Liége, with the left thrown back to Sprimont. The left wing was covered by the Ourthe. Jourdan had been stationary for some time, waiting for General Scherer to recapture Condé and Valenciennes. By the end of August the fortresses had fallen, and after Scherer joined him Jourdan went onto the offensive.
On 14 September Kléber was sent to attack the Austrian right and centre, and then on 17-18 September Jourdan made his main assault, against the Austrian left (battle of the Ourthe). General Latour was unable to hold his position at Sprimont, and Clerfayt was forced back to the Roer.
Clerfayt's new position stretched from Ruremonde on his right, to Juliers and Aldenhoven in the centre, to Duerin at the left. Once again he was unable to hold the line of the river, and was pushed back to the Rhine (battle of the Roer, 2 October). Clerfayt's new position ran from Bonn at the left down to Duisburg at the right, with Jourdan facing him across the Rhine.
At the start of 1795 Clerfayt was promoted to Field Marshal, and given command for the Army of the Lower Rhine, with a front that stretched from Düssedorf to the Neckar at Mannheim. A second Austrian army, under General Wurmser, was taking shape in the Black Forest, but would not play an important role in the fighting until the summer.
By the summer of 1795 the French had two armies on the Rhine. In the north was General Jourdan with the Army of the Sambre and the Meuse, while to the south was General Pichegru with the Army of the Rhine and the Moselle. The two armies met around Mainz, where Pichegru was in charge of the French siege of the city.
At the start of September Jourdan crossed the Rhine at Düsseldorf, and further north in neutral Prussian territory. Clerfayt's right wing was forced to retreat, and by 20 September Jourdan was on the River Lahn, with his left at Wetzler and his right at Nassau. Further south Pichegru had captured Mannheim. He then made a half-hearted attempt to capture Clerfayt's main magazine at Heidelberg. Clerfeyt was forced to mouth south from his position on the River Mein to deal with this threat, but the French attack was repulsed by General Quasdanowich before he arrived on the scene.
Jourdan was now in a rather vulnerable position, isolated on the east bank of the Rhine and with his left flank only protected by the neutrality of Frankfurt. Clerfayt proceeded to ignore this neutrality, and marched part of his army around the French left. Jourdan was forced to retreat north and crossed back across the Rhine between Bonn and Coblenz (Battle of Hochst).
French politics then gave Clerfayt a chance to win his most famous victory. The Committee of Public Safety refused to allow Jourdan and Pichegru to operate together. Jourdan was ordered to remain around Düsseldorf, but with his right wing around Mannheim, and more troops besieging Mainz, while Pichegru was ordered to move south to cross the Rhine again. Clerfayt took advantage of this to split the French armies in two. On 29 October, having reinforced the garrison of Mainz, he launched an attack from the besieged city which overran the French siege works. Pichegru was forced to pull back to the south, with Clerfayt in pursuit. Mannheim then surrendered to Wurmser, who was able to cross the river and take over pursuit. This freed Clerfayt to move south to face Jourdan. On 16 December the Austrians defeated an attack on their lines, and Jourdan was forced to pull back to the Moselle.
This ended the fighting for the year. With winter approaching Clerfayt arranged an armistice with Jourdan, which also included Pichegru's army, and retired into winter quarters. On his return to Vienna Clerfayt was applauded for his victories, but the armistice was less popular. Early in 1796 he fell ill, and his opponents used the chance to have him replaced by the Archduke Charles, ending his military career. Clerfayt died two years later.
Clerfayt has a mixed reputation. His performance in the Austrian Netherlands was not always impressive, and he was criticised by the British for his slowness, but most of the time he was operating under someone else's authority. His last campaign, on the Rhine, was probably his most impressive, but even them he missed a chance to inflict a much more serious defeat on the French, allowing too many of his own troops to stay on the east bank of the Rhine and too many of the French troops around Mainz to escape.
For some reason no accepted spelling of Clerfayt's name has been adopted, and he will be found as Clerfayt, Clarfait, Clarfayt, Clairfait and Clairfayt in different sources.
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François Sébastien de Croix de Clerfayt
François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, graaf van Clerfayt (Duits: Franz Sebastian Karl Joseph de Croix Graf von Clerfayt) (Waudrez, 14 oktober 1733 – Wenen, 21 juli 1798) was een Oostenrijks veldmaarschalk, afkomstig uit de Zuidelijke Nederlanden. Hij vocht tegen Pruisen tijdens de Zevenjarige Oorlog, tegen de Turken tijdens de Oostenrijks-Turkse Oorlog en tegen de Fransen tijdens de Eerste Coalitieoorlog.
Francaj Revoluciaj Militoj
En 1792, ĉar unu el la plej eminentaj el la generaloj de la imperiestro, li ricevis la ordonrajton pri la aŭstra kontingento en armeo de la duko de Brunswick, kaj ĉe Croix-sous-Bois siajn trupojn kaŭzis reverson al la soldatoj de la Franca Revolucio. En Nederlando, li komandis la centron ĉe la Battle of Jemappes (Batalo de Jemappes) la 6an de novembro. Li malfermis la kampanjon de 1793 kun la venko de Aldenhoven kaj la krizhelpo de Maastricht, kaj la 18an de marto 1793 pruvis instrumenta en kaŭzado de la kompleta malvenko de Charles Dumouriez ĉe la Battle of Neerwinden (Batalo de Neerwinden). En oktobro, aliflanke, lia venka kariero suferis reverson ĉe la Battle of Wattignies (Batalo de Wattignies).
Li partoprenis la Flandria Kampanjo kontraŭ Charles Pichegru 1794.  Gvidante laŭflankan kolonon de la nordo, li batalis ĉe la Battle of Tourcoing (Batalo de Tourcoing) sur 17-18 majo. Franca trupo sub Dominique Vandamme bremsis sian progreson ĝis Joseph Souham venkis la anglo-aŭstran armeon sur la suda parto de la batalkampo. Souham tiam turnita kontraŭ Clerfayt kaj devigis lin retiriĝi en la nordoriento. En la kurso de la kampanjo. [ citaĵo bezonis ] Clerfayt sukcedis Prince Josias of Coburg (Princo Josias de Distrikto Coburg) en la ĉefkomando, sed li ne produktis progreson kontraŭ la francoj, kaj devis rekros Rejnon.
Feldmarskal de 22 aprilo 1795,  li komandis sur la mezo Rejnon kontraŭ Jean Baptiste Jourdan, kaj tiu tempon la militbonŝancoj ŝanĝiĝis. Clerfayt batis Jordanion ĉe Frankfurt-Höchst kaj genie senzorgigita Majenco. Sed la aŭstra ekstero-ministro Johann Thugut ne aprobis la agon de Clerfayt en finado de armistico kun la francoj, tiel ke la feldmarŝalo prirezignis sian komandon kaj iĝis membro de la Aulic Konsilio en Vieno. Li mortis en 1798.
Field Marshal in other countries
Field Marshal General ( Russian генерал-фельдмаршал ) was the highest military rank in Russia from the government of Peter the Great in 1700 until the February Revolution in 1917 . In the general ranking table he corresponded to 1st class, equal to the Admiral General in the Navy, the Chancellor and the Secret Council of 1st class in the civil service. The tsars also awarded the title General Field Marshal as a special honor to civilians such as the former Chancellors Golowin , Trubezkoi , and Shuwalov , who were thereby able to maintain their prominent position in court ceremonies , and foreign highly deserved military figures such as the Duke of Wellington , Archduke Albrecht , Radetzky , Ferdinand I. , Tsar of the Bulgarians , and the elder Moltke .
In 1933, the country introduced the rank of field marshal ( FI: Sotamarsalkka / SV: Fältmarskalk ). The only holder of this rank was Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim In 1942 he was promoted to FI: Suomen marsalkka / SV: Marskalk av Finland (Marshal of Finland), which corresponds to the Reichsmarschall .
The field marshal corresponds to the Maréchal de France ( Marshal of France ). However, it is not a rank, but only an honorary position. He is therefore not promoted, but appointed. At the time of the Ancien Régime, the Maréchal général des camps et armées du roi (literally "Field Marshal General of the King") possessed a large amount of power however, this position was only sporadic. In the fourth republic (1947-1958) three marshals were appointed. After the death of the last Marshal of France Alphonse Juin in 1967, the title was no longer awarded.
In addition, the rank of Maréchal de camp (literally field marshal) existed until 1791 . This was only the brigade commander and the brigadier des armées du roi Both ranks disappeared in 1793 and went to the new rank of brigadier general ( général de brigade ).
The Mestre de camp (literally field master), on the other hand, referred to a regimental commander, especially in the cavalry. It corresponded to the Colonel ( Colonel ).
A mere NCO rank today is the Maréchal des Logis for motorized units and the gendarmerie. He is equal to the sergent .
In Sweden from 1561 to 1824 the title of field marshal ( fältmarskalk ) was awarded 83 times as the highest military rank.
Field Marshal corresponds to the Capitán general captain general . At present the king is the only one who holds this rank. During fascism , the commanders of the military districts were in the rank of captain general, who performed political and judicial functions in addition to military ones. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the captains general enjoyed unrestricted authority, as generalissimo he could order battles and sieges on his own initiative. Since 1630 ranked the Gobernador de las Armas y Ejército (about "Army Governor", ie. Commander of the Army) as his deputy.
Not to be confused with the field marshal is the Maestre de Campo (literally field master). Between 1534 and 1704, as a colonel , he commanded the new regiments ( Terzios ) that were set up at the same time . Since 1540 he was in charge of the Maestre de campo general ( Colonel General ), at that time the second highest rank in the army, with the Teniente de Maestre de campo general (about "Colonel General-Lieutenant", compare Field Marshal Lieutenant ) as deputy.
Subordinate to the Maestre de Campo was the Sargento Mayor (about major / lieutenant colonel ). Around 1640 the Sargento General de Batalla (about " General Sergeant of the Battle ") formed a further step directly above the Maestre de Campo.
In 1924 the Marshal of Italy was introduced as the highest rank of general. A total of thirteen army generals and one air force general were appointed marshals. With the end of kingship in 1947, the rank was abolished.
An Italian maresciallo is a non-commissioned officer.
The only active Marshal of Romania was Ion Antonescu . In addition to the Romanian kings since Ferdinand I , Constantin Prezan and Alexandru Averescu held the honorary title of the same name .
Today, Law No. 80 of July 11, 1995 regulates the appointment of the rank of military cadre to the effect that the rank of field marshal or admiral may only be awarded for special services in the event of war, and only by the president Romania .
The rank of Field Marshal was introduced in Great Britain in 1736 by King George II , the second king of the House of Hanover , as an equivalent to the field marshal common on the continent with the appointment of two generals.
In the 20th century, the Chief of the General Staff (formerly Chief of the Imperial General Staff , now Chief of the Defense Staff ) is a regular field marshal. In addition, individual members of the royal family were raised to this rank. In the Royal Navy the Admiral of the Fleet corresponds to the Field Marshal , in the Royal Air Force to the Marshal of the Royal Air Force . Only the Royal Marines do not have a corresponding rank. The rank is associated with certain privileges, including a field marshal who does not retire.
→ See also: Marshal of Great Britain , list of well-known British field marshals
After the end of the First World War , John J. Pershing was the only one awarded the rank of General of the Armies of the United States . He was ranked above the four-star general of the US Army , comparable to the contemporary German field marshal.
In 1944, the General of the Army, or informally five-star general, was created as the equivalent of the British Field Marshal and Marshal of the Soviet Union and corresponds to the Fleet Admiral in the US Navy and the rank of General of the Air Force created in 1947 in the US Air Force . A total of five officers received this rank with Omar N. Bradley died in 1981, the last owner of the rank. It has not been awarded since then.
Marlborough’s War II
The Duke of Marlborough at the Battle of Ramillies, 1706
The Battle of Ramilies, 23 May 1706. The 16th Foot charging French infantry.
The year 1706 brought great success. Intent on avenging Blenheim, underestimating British strength, and concerned to push Marlborough back, Louis XIV ordered Villeroi to advance, but the consequences were disastrous for France. On a spread-out battlefield at Ramillies (23 May), Marlborough again obtained a victory by breaking the French centre after it had been weakened in order to support action on the flanks. Attacks on both flanks tied down much of the French army, including the infantry on their right. A cavalry battle on the French centre-right was finally won by the Allies and, as the French right wing retreated, the British, their preparations concealed by dead ground, attacked through the French centre, leading to the flight of their opponents. The French lost all their cannon and suffered about 19,000 casualties (including prisoners), compared to 3,600 Allied casualties. This was the only one of Marlborough’s major battles in which Eugene did not take part.
Thus, in a six-hour battle of roughly equal armies, Marlborough showed the characteristic features of his generalship. Cool and composed under fire, brave to the point of rashness, Marlborough was a master of the shape and the details of conflict. He kept control of his own forces and of the flow of the battle, and was able to move and commit his troops decisively at the most appropriate moment, moving troops from his right flank for the final breakthrough in the centre.
Ramillies indicated the value of destroying the opposing field army, especially early in the campaigning season. It was followed by the rapid fall of a number of positions including Ath, Antwerp, Bruges, Brussels, Dendermonde, Ghent, Louvain, Menin, Ostend and Oudenaarde: most offered little or no resistance, but it proved necessary to besiege Dendermonde, Ostend, Menin and Ath. The cohesion of Villeroi’s army was largely destroyed by the battle. The regional and municipal authorities and Spanish garrisons in much of the Spanish Netherlands hastened to surrender, and the French were only able to organize resistance in a few fortresses. Ostend fell on 6 July, after a short siege in which an Anglo-Dutch squadron had bombarded the defences, Menin on 22 August, Dendermonde on 5 September, despite the French drowning much of the surrounding countryside, and Ath on 4 October. The new French commander, Vendome, led a larger army, much of it transferred from the Rhine, but he was unwilling to attack Marlborough as he covered the sieges in the Spanish Netherlands. The capture of Ostend improved supply routes between Britain and her army in the Low Countries.
The following year (1707) was less successful, as a result of political differences, both in Britain and among the Allies. Furthermore, both the larger French force, under Vendome, and the Dutch were reluctant to provoke a battle. Vendome cautiously took the initiative and improved the French position in the Low Countries. In 1708, however, the French advanced boldly from their fortified positions, although their larger army suffered from a poorly co-ordinated divided command. The French regained Ghent and Bruges, but Marlborough crushed their attempt to reconquer the Spanish Netherlands when he and Eugene defeated Vendome’s army at Oudenaarde (11 July). After several hours fighting, during which both sides moved units into combat as they arrived on the battlefield and the French pressed the Allied right and right-centre very hard, the French position was nearly enveloped when Marlborough sent the cavalry on his left around the French right flank and into their rear, thus destroying his opponents’ cohesion. However, the French successfully retreated under cover of the approaching night. Vendome had been badly let down by his co-commander, Louis XIV’s eldest grandson, the haughty Duke of Burgundy, and the French lost, not only, like the Allies, about 7,000 killed and wounded, but also about 7,000 prisoners and, more worryingly, their confidence.
Several British leaders would have preferred to exploit the victory by a bold invasion of France, but Eugene and the Dutch favoured a more cautious policy. Oudenaarde was followed by the lengthy and, ultimately, successful siege of Lille, the most important French fortified position near the frontier. It was well fortified, ably defended by a large garrison under Marshal Boufflers, and there was the prospect of Vendome relieving the position. A poorly coordinated attack on too wide a front on 7 September, commanded by Eugene, left nearly 3,000 attackers dead or wounded. The Allies were only successful when they concentrated their artillery fire, making a number of large breaches, beat off French diversionary attacks, and prevented the French from cutting their supply lines, defeating one such attempt at Wijnendale on 28 September. The town surrendered on 23 October, and the siege of the citadel proved less costly. It finally capitulated on 19 December 1708, after a siege of 120 days that cost the besiegers 14,000 casualties.
Far from going into winter quarters, Marlborough then overran western Flanders and recaptured Ghent and Bruges. The French attempt to regain the initiative in a nearby region had thus been defeated, and Marlborough had sustained his reputation, and that of his army, for delivering victory and for successful siegecraft. However, Vendome’s replacement, Villars, plugged the gap in the French defences by constructing the Lines of Cambrin which blocked any advance south from Lille.
Marlborough’s reputation received a serious blow the following year. He first besieged and captured Tournai, another important frontier fortification, but one whose loss did not breach the French defences. Most of the campaigning season was taken up by the siege. Well garrisoned, Tournai did not surrender until forced to do so by a shortage of food on 3 September. Marlborough moved on to besiege Mons, and attacked a French army, under the able Villars, entrenched nearby at Malplaquet, a position chosen so as to threaten the siege and provoke a British attack on terrain suited to the defence. The battle, on 11 September 1709, exemplified Marlborough’s belief in the attack, but it also indicated the heavy casualties that could be caused by the sustained exchange of fire between nearby lines of closely packed troops.
As later with Frederick the Great and his Austrian opponents, Marlborough’s tactics had become stereotyped, allowing the French to prepare an effective response. They held his attacks on their flanks and retained a substantial reserve to meet his final central push by nearly 30,000 cavalry. The French finally retreated in the face of eventually successful pressure on their left and centre, but their army had not been routed and they were able to retreat in good order. The casualties were very heavy on both sides, including 24,000 (8,000 of them British) of the 110,000 strong Anglo-Dutch-German force, although only about 12,000 of their opponents indeed, the battle was the bloodiest in Europe prior to that of Borodino during Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812. As before, Marlborough’s tactics were based on the acceptance of the likelihood of heavy casualties, but at Malplaquet these casualties did not serve to obtain mastery of the battlefield. The heavy casualties affected Marlborough, not only by increasing political criticism, but also by making him less ready to risk battle.
As with the battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715, it was the momentum of result that was crucial. Marlborough went on to capture Mons (20 October) and Ghent (30 December 1709), but hopes of breaching the French frontier defences and marching on Paris were misplaced. In particular, heavy casualties among their soldiers lessened Dutch support for the war.
In 1710 Marlborough showed his mastery of manoeuvre, penetrated the Lines of Cambrin, south of Lille, early in the campaigning season and then sought to enlarge the new gap in the French defensive system. He besieged and captured Douai (29 June), but then, instead of pressing south towards Paris, moved west along the French lines, besieging and capturing Béthune (29 August), Saint-Venant (30 September) and Aire (9 November). The siege of Douai, however, had taken longer than expected, and Villars then blocked Marlborough’s route towards Arras in a strong position.
The following year, Marlborough decided to press south, but Villars had strengthened the French defences with the 160 mile long Lines of Ne Plus Ultra (no further) which stretched from Etaples via Arras and Mauberge to Namur. Marlborough succeeded in misleading the defenders, crossed the lines without casualties near Arleux (5 August), and, in a well-conducted siege, besieged and captured Bouchain (12 September), a strongly-garrisoned fortress protected by marshes as well as fortifications.
Such achievements among the French frontier positions were no longer sufficient. Marlborough could no longer deliver a major victory, and Bouchain was too little to show for a year’s campaigning. In addition, support for a continuation of the costly war had eroded in Britain and the Tory government that came to power in 1710 both dismissed Marlborough (31 December 1711) and, in 1713, abandoned Austria in order to negotiate, by the Treaty of Utrecht, a unilateral peace with France. The previous year, Marlborough’s successor, the Tory Duke of Ormonde, under “restraining orders” that forbade him from taking part in a battle or siege, had failed to provide Eugene with support, and Eugene was defeated by Villars at Denain. Villars went on to recapture Douai and Bouchain.
By 1713 British military expenditure had fallen to a point where there were only about 23,500 subject troops. Under the Treaty of Utrecht, Louis regained Aire, Béthune, Lille and Saint-Venant. His fortification system, which had served him so well in the war, was largely restored, although he had to accept a number of permanent losses, including Tournai. Philip V was left in control of Spain, but “Charles III”, now the Emperor Charles VI, gained Lombardy, Sardinia and the Austrian Netherlands. Thus, the Bourbons had been kept out of the Low Countries.
Under Marlborough, the British army reached a peak of success that it was not to repeat in Europe for another century. The combat effectiveness of British units, especially the fire discipline and bayonet skill of the infantry, and the ability of the cavalry to mount successful charges relying on cold steel, owed much to their extensive experience of campaigning and battles in the 1690s and 1700s. These also played a vital role in training the officers and in accustoming the troops to immediate manoeuvre and execution. This was the most battle-experienced British army since those of the Civil War, and the latter did not take place in battles that were as extensive or sieges of positions that were as well fortified as those that faced Marlborough’s forces.
The cavalry composed about a quarter of the army. Like Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in the Thirty Years’ War (1618-48), Marlborough made his cavalry act like a shock force, charging fast, rather than as mounted infantry relying on pistol firepower. He used a massed cavalry charge at the climax of Blenheim, Ramillies and Malplaquet. The infantry, drawn up in three ranks, were organized into three firings, ensuring that continuous fire was maintained. British infantry fire was more effective than French fire, so that the pressure of battlefield conflict with the British was high. The inaccuracy of muskets was countered by the proximity of the opposing lines, and their close-packed nature. The artillery were handled in a capable fashion: they were both well positioned on the field of battle, and were resited and moved forward to affect its development. As Marlborough was Master-General of the Ordnance as well as Captain-General of the Army, he was able to direct the artillery. His view of the need for co-operation led him to be instrumental in the creation of the Royal Regiment of Artillery in 1722 the first two artillery companies had been created at Gibraltar in 1716. However, the British lacked sufficient expertise to mount major sieges on their own and had to turn to Dutch engineers they were not noted for their celerity.
Marlborough’s battles were fought on a more extended front than those of the 1690s, let alone the 1650s, and thus placed a premium on mobility, planning and the ability of commanders to respond rapidly to developments over a wide front and to integrate and influence what might otherwise have been in practice a number of separate conflicts. Marlborough was particularly good at this and anticipated Napoleon’s skilful and determined generalship in this respect. Marlborough was also successful in co-ordinating the deployment and use of infantry, cavalry and cannon on the battlefield. In strategy, he was more successful than other contemporary generals in surmounting the constraints created by the need to protect or capture fortresses: Marlborough turned an army and a system of operations developed for position warfare into a means to make war mobile.
In the 17th century the term "regiment on foot" was common (the name of the regiment chief followed). From 1717/18 " on foot " was no longer used and the term " infantry regiment " was added to the name of the regiment owner. Until the loss of the imperial dignity of the House of Habsburg in 1742, the regiments were generally referred to as " imperial ". In the short period between the Bavarian dignity and imperial dignity from 1742 to 1745, the troops were referred to as "royal Hungarian". Only when the Roman-German imperial dignity was regained in 1745 was the general term “imperial-royal” introduced for the regiments.
- : Thugut, Clerfait und Wurmser. - Wien 1869
- Wolfgang Klötzer (Hrg.), Frankfurter Biographie. Erster Band A-L. Frankfurt am Main, 1994. Verlag Waldemar Kramer, ISBN 3-7829-0444-3
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Clerfait — (spr. Klärsäh), österreichischer General, s. Clairfait … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Clerfait — (spr. klärsä, Clairfayt), Karl Joseph de Croix, Graf von, österreich. Feldmarschall, geb. 14. Okt. 1733 auf Schloß Bruille im Hennegau, gest. 21. Juli 1798 in Wien, avancierte im Siebenjährigen Kriege zum Obersten, focht 1788–90 gegen die Türken… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Charles Joseph de Croix, comte de Clerfait — François Sébastian Charles Joseph de Croix Graf von Clerfait und von Carbonne, auch Clerfayt oder Clairfait, (* 14. Oktober 1733 auf Schloss Bruille im Hennegau (Österreichische Niederlande) † 21. Juli 1798 in Wien) war ein österreichischer… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Charles Joseph de Croix, Graf Clerfait — François Sébastian Charles Joseph de Croix Graf von Clerfait und von Carbonne, auch Clerfayt oder Clairfait, (* 14. Oktober 1733 auf Schloss Bruille im Hennegau (Österreichische Niederlande) † 21. Juli 1798 in Wien) war ein österreichischer… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Erster Koalitionskrieg — Schlachten und Belagerungen des Ersten Koalitionskrieges (1792–1797) Verdun Avesnes le Sec Thionville Valmy Lille Mainz (1792) Jemappes Namur Neerwinden Mainz (1793) Famars Arlon (1793) Hondschoote Meribel Pirmasens Toulon Fontenay le Comte… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Croix — ist die Bezeichnung mehrerer Gemeinden in Frankreich: Croix (Nord), Gemeinde im Département Nord Croix (Territoire de Belfort), Gemeinde im Département Territoire de Belfort mit Namenszusatz: Croix Caluyau, Gemeinde im Département Nord Croix… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Dagobert Wurmser — Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser Dagobert Siegmund Graf von Wurmser (* 7. Mai 1724 in Straßburg, Elsass † 22. August 1797 in Wien) war ein österreichischer Feldmarschall. Leben Wurmser begann 1741 seine militärische Laufbahn in französischen… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Franz Maria von Thugut — Thugut, vom J. A. Ecker Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula Freiherr von Thugut (* 8. März 1736 in Linz † 29. Mai 1818 in Wien) war ein österreichischer Staatsmann. Thugut, der aus bürgerlichen Verhältnissen kam, arbeitete zunächst als Übersetzer in… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo-Mannsfeld (General) — Hieronymus von Colloredo Mansfeld, Lithographie von Josef Kriehuber, 1836 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hieronymus Karl von Colloredo-Mannsfeld — Hieronymus von Colloredo Mansfeld, Lithographie von Josef Kriehuber, 1836 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Clerfait zeichnete sich als junger Offizier während des Siebenjährigen Krieges in den Schlachten von Prag (6. Mai 1757), Hochkirch (14. Oktober 1758) und Liegnitz (15. August 1760) aus und avancierte zu Beginn des Frieden von Hubertusburg zum Oberst. Während des Bayerischen Erbfolgekrieges erlangte er den Maria Theresia-Orden und wurde 1779 zum Generalmajor befördert. 1788 bis 1789 sicherte er als Feldmarschallleutnant im Türkenkrieg die slavonische Militärgrenze und verdrängte die von Koca Yusuf Pascha geführten Türken nach den siegreiche Gefechten bei Mehadia und Zupanek im August 1789 aus dem Banat. Dafür erwarb er sich zusätzlich das Großkreuz des Theresienordens. Seine Truppen erreichten am 26. Juni 1790 bei Kalafat einen letzten Sieg im bereits verlorenen Krieg, am 10. November 1790 wurde er zum Feldzeugmeister befördert.
Zu Beginn des Ersten Koalitionskrieges im Sommer 1792 warf er zusammen mit General Beaulieu die Franzosen aus den Niederlanden zurück. Über Namur kommend vereinigte er seine 11.000 Mann mit der preußischen Armee unter dem Herzog von Braunschweig. Am 23. August kapitulierte Longwy nach kurzem Beschuss, am 2. September erfolgte die Übergabe der Festung Verdun. Clerfaits Truppen bemächtigten sich am 1. September des wichtigen Postens bei Stenay und deckten nach der Kanonade von Valmy den Rückzug der Preußen nach Koblenz. Ende September bis Anfang Oktober führte er sein Korps in Gewaltmärschen aus den Raum Verdun nach Mons und bewährte sich in der Schlacht von Jemappes. Im November 1792 erhielt er anstatt des von den Franzosen besiegten Herzogs Albert von Sachsen-Teschen das Oberkommando gegen Dumouriez in den Niederlanden.
Am 1. März 1793 überfiel er die Franzosen bei Aldenhoven, zwang sie zur Aufhebung der Belagerung von Maastricht und erreichte am 18. März den Sieg in der Schlacht von Neerwinden. Am 15. und 16. Oktober 1793 unterlag er in der Schlacht bei Wattignies gegen Jean-Baptiste Jourdan. 1794 schlug er in Flandern mehrere Angriffe der Franzosen zurück, konnte aber nach der Schlacht bei Fleurus, die Prinz Coburg verlor, den Feind nicht mehr aufhalten. In Coburgs Stelle eingerückt, führte er die Armee in Ordnung über den Rhein zurück.
Grabmal auf dem Friedhof Hernals
1795 erhielt er als Reichsfeldzeugmeister den Oberbefehl über die österreichische und die Reichsarmee am Mittel- und Niederrhein. Als im Herbst Jourdan bei Düsseldorf und Pichegru bei Mannheim über den Rhein drangen, warf sich Clerfait auf erstern, schlug ihn am 10. Oktober bei Höchst am Main und warf ihn über den Rhein zurück. Danach eilte er nach Mainz, das von 70.000 Franzosen eingeschlossen war, eroberte die für unüberwindlich gehaltenen Mainzer Linien und trieb den Feind über Ingelheim gegen Bingen und über Oppenheim bis Alzey zurück. Am 10. November 1795 siegte Clerfait in der Schlacht von Pfeddersheim nochmalig über Pichegru und rückte hinter dem Pfrimm-Abschnitt vor. Nach einmonatiger Belagerung ergab sich am 22. November Mannheim dem General Latour, die 10 000 Mann starke französische Garnison unter General Montaigu kapitulierte. Auf einen Winterfeldzug nicht eingerichtet, schloss Clerfait am 21. Dezember einen Waffenstillstand und kehrte im Januar 1796 nach Wien zurück.
Auf dem Weg dorthin nahm er am 5. Januar 1796 in Frankfurt am Main sein Quartier im Gasthof Römischer Kaiser. Sein Sieg bei Höchst hatte die Stadt vor der Eroberung durch französische Truppen bewahrt, deshalb gab sie ihm zu Ehren einen Festakt im Städtischen Theater, bei dem ein eigens zu diesem Anlass gedichteter Prolog von Johann Jakob Ihlée vorgetragen wurde. Der Senat unter Führung des Älteren Bürgermeisters Adolph Carl von Humbracht ernannte ihn am 7. Januar 1796 zum Ehrenbürger von Frankfurt. Für diese Ehre, die die Stadt erst zum zweiten Mal verlieh, ließ Kaiser Franz II. dem Senat sein Allergnädigstes Wohlgefallen ausdrücken.
Wegen Zwistigkeiten mit dem Minister Thugut wegen des Waffenstillstandes und des Vorwurfs, viel zu wenig rasche Initiative ergriffen zu haben, erhielt er den Oberbefehl nicht wieder und trat in den Hofkriegsrat, starb jedoch allgemein geachtet am 21. Juli 1798, von der Stadt Wien durch ein ehrenhalber gewidmetes Grab (Gruppe OK, Nummer 1) auf dem Hernalser Friedhof geehrt.
Clerfait, Karl Joseph von Croix Graf von
Verknüpfungen zu anderen Personen wurden aus den Registerangaben von NDB und ADB übernommen und durch computerlinguistische Analyse und Identifikation gewonnen. Soweit möglich wird auf Artikel verwiesen, andernfalls auf das Digitalisat.
Symbole auf der Karte
Auf der Karte werden im Anfangszustand bereits alle zu der Person lokalisierten Orte eingetragen und bei Überlagerung je nach Zoomstufe zusammengefaßt. Der Schatten des Symbols ist etwas stärker und es kann durch Klick aufgefaltet werden. Jeder Ort bietet bei Klick oder Mouseover einen Infokasten. Über den Ortsnamen kann eine Suche im Datenbestand ausgelöst werden.
Clerfait, Karl Josef von Croix Graf von, Indexeintrag: Deutsche Biographie, https://www.deutsche-biographie.de/pnd132503220.html [18.06.2021].
Clerfait: Karl Joseph v. Croix , Graf v. C. , kaiserlicher Heerführer in den Kriegen gegen die französische Republik zu Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts, geb. 14. Oct. 1733 im Schlosse Bruille unweit Binch im Hennegau, gest. als Feldmarschall den 21. Juli 1798 zu Wien. Wenige Jahre nach seinem 1753 erfolgten Eintritt in das österreichische Heer fand C. , dem vorausgehend eine sorgfältige Erziehung zu Theil geworden war, in der harten und lehrreichen Schule des siebenjährigen Krieges reiche Gelegenheit, sich für den praktischen Dienst auszubilden. Er kämpfte mit bei Prag, Leuthen, Hochkirch und Liegnitz und kam als Oberst aus dem Kriege zurück. Der in militärischer Beziehung ziemlich bedeutungslose Krieg um die baierische Erbfolge führte ihn vorübergehend 1778 wieder ins Feld. Nachdem er die an ihn als Belgier ergangene Aufforderung zur Betheiligung am Aufstande der Niederlande abschlägig beschieden hatte, berief ihn der Krieg Oesterreichs und Rußlands mit der Pforte (1788—91) zu erneuter Thätigkeit. Nach dem bei den Strategen damaliger Zeit, namentlich bei jenen des Wiener Hofkriegsrathes beliebten Cordonsystem stand die bei Beginn des Krieges 200000 Mann starke österreichische Armee längs der türkischen Grenze zerstreut, in fünf gesonderten Corps in Croatien, Slavonien, Banat, Siebenbürgen und in der Bukowina, hinter der Mitte die sogenannte Hauptarmee im Banat, am linken Flügel schlossen sich die russischen Corps an. C. befand sich 1788 bei der Hauptarmee, welche in diesem Jahre keine größeren Gefechte zu bestehen hatte in der Hauptsache war man in der Defensive geblieben, da die russischen Heertheile zu angriffsweiser Kriegführung noch nicht vorbereitet waren. 1789 erhielt C. an Stelle Wartensleben's, welcher im Vorjahre nicht besonders glücklich gegen den Großwessir gekämpft hatte, den Oberbefehl über das im Banate zunächst der Grenze stehende Corps. Während nun die Russen am linken Flügel siegreich vordrangen, wurde auch auf der ganzen österreichischen Linie mit Vortheil gekämpft. C. schlug das bei | Orsowa über die Donau in das Banat eingedrungene türkische Heer am 28. Aug. bei Mehadia, trieb es über diesen Fluß zurück und ließ Gladowa an der serbischen Grenze wegnehmen. Hierauf schloß er sich dem Vormarsche der jetzt von London befehligten Hauptarmee an und half Belgrad erobern. London besetzte nun einen Theil Serbiens, und C. rückte zum Anschluß an das Corps Hohenlohe in die Walachei. Nach kurzer Winterruhe begannen im Frühjahre 1790 die Feindseligkeiten von neuem. Feldzeugmeister C. schlug am 26. Juni bei Kalefat an der Donau ein türkisches Corps in verschanzter Stellung, wies am 27. Juli weiter flußaufwärts bei Florentin einen Angriff der Türken erfolgreich zurück und behauptete sich in der westlichen Walachei bis zum Friedensschlusse.
Da C. sich im Türkenkriege als tüchtiger Truppenführer bewährt hatte, so erhielt er, als 1792 der Krieg gegen Frankreich begann, den Oberbefehl über das in Belgien an der französischen Grenze stehende 20000 Mann starke Armeecorps und wies hier die Einfälle der Franzosen erfolgreich zurück. Als der Herzog von Braunschweig mit dem deutschen Hauptheere in Frankreich vorrückte, schloß er sich demselben als rechtes Flügelcorps von Namur aus an am 20. August vereinigte er sich mit demselben vor Longwy, welche Festung vier Tage darauf capitulirte. Hierauf wieder abgesandt, deckte er die rechte Flanke beim Vormarsche auf Verdun gegen Lafayette, besetzte die Feste Stenay und bemächtigte sich des mit geringen Kräften vertheidigten Argonnenpasses bei La Croix aux bois. Der Tag von Valmy, an welchem Dumouriez und Kellermann sich zum Kampfe stellten, es aber Braunschweig an Thatkraft gebrach, eine Schlacht zu schlagen, vereinigte C. wieder mit dem Hauptheere. Nach der ergebnißlosen Kanonade bewogen schlechte Witterung, Krankheiten und Verpflegungsschwierigkeiten den Oberfeldherrn zum Rückzuge C. , vom Kaiser zum Schutze der Niederlande abberufen, trennte sich vom Hauptheere, zog sich vom Feinde wenig belästigt über Stenay zurück und trat unter den Oberbefehl Alberts von Sachsen-Teschen, welcher mit einem Defensivcorps in Belgien zurückgeblieben war. Gegen diesen wendete sich nun Dumouriez. nachdem Kellermann die Verfolgung des Heeres unter Braunschweig übernommen hatte. Am 6. November kam es zur Schlacht bei Jemappes, in welcher die Oesterreicher der Uebermacht mit großem Verluste weichen mußten und in Folge dessen die Niederlande zu räumen gezwungen wurden. Von seinem Unglück niedergebeugt, übergab Albert von Sachsen-Teschen den Oberbefehl über das geschlagene Heer an C. mit vielem Geschick zog sich dieser unter fortwährenden Gefechten hinter die Maas und dann hinter die Erft und Roer zurück, wo er mit den Truppen Winterquartiere bezog. — Für den Krieg von 1794, in welchem fast ganz Europa gegen den Nationalconvent ins Feld zog und der Kampf längs der ganzen französischen Grenze geführt wurde, sammelte sich das neugebildete österreichische Hauptheer unter Josias von Coburg hinter der Roer, dabei auch C. mit seinen Truppen. Gegenüber stand Valence mit Uebermacht, jedoch in sehr zersplitterter Aufstellung. In der Nacht zum 1. März gingen die Oesterreicher in 2 Colonnen bei Jülich und Düren über die Roer, C. führte jene des rechten Flügels. Bei Tagesanbruch überfiel C. am jenseitigen Ufer die Franzosen bei Aldenhofen und trieb sie in die Flucht, während die linke Colonne unter Coburg bei Eschweiler mit gleichem Erfolge kämpfte. Im weitern Vorrücken fiel auch Aachen nach kurzem Widerstande den Oesterreichern in die Hände, und die Belagerung von Maastricht wurde von den Franzosen aufgegeben. Der Prinz rückte nun gegen Brüssel vor. Auf dem Marsche dahin kam es zur Schlacht bei Neerwinden am 18. März die Oesterreicher zählten 42000 Mann, die Franzosen unter Dumouriez 48000 Mann. C. befehligte anfangs die Reserve und wurde später an den linken Flügel | vorgezogen, um hier unter Coburg zur Entscheidung des Tages mitzuwirken. Am 22. März wurde Dumouriez bei Löwen zum zweiten Male geschlagen, und Ende des Monats war ganz Belgien zurückerobert. Statt nun die durch die erlittenen Niederlagen und hierauf durch Dumouriez' Abfall hervorgerufene Auflösung der republikanischen Armee zu energischen Operationen auszubeuten, verlor Coburg sich wieder in einen Cordonkrieg an der Grenze. In den weiteren Kämpfen, welche sich demgemäß um Wegnahme der französischen Grenzfestungen und Abweisung von Entsatzversuchen bewegten, nahm C. hervorragenden Antheil. Da eine feste Eintheilung in Corps oder Divisionen bei den Oesterreichern damals noch nicht bestand, so wurde C. stets je nach der Lage mit besonderen Aufgaben betraut. Er nahm Theil an den Gefechten von Raismes und Famars, an der Eroberung des als Camp de César bekannten verschanzten Lagers zwischen Bouchain und Cambray und führte selbständig die Belagerung von Lequesnoy durch. Während der Schlacht von Wattignys, welche Coburg gegen Jourdan verlor, stand C. beim Belagerungsheere vor Maubeuge. Die schlechte Jahreszeit ließ bald darauf die Operationen zum Stillstand kommen. — Im Feldzuge 1794, in welchem auf Seite der Verbündeten durch eine große Zersplitterung der Streitkräfte von Anfang der Grund zu den spätern Mißerfolgen gelegt worden war, befehligte C. ein selbständiges 28000 Mann starkes Corps, welches am äußersten rechten Flügel bei Tournay in Westflandern stand und sich vertheidigungsweise verhalten sollte. Obwol die Verbündeten sich anfangs in den Niederlanden siegreich gegen die Franzosen schlugen, so konnten sie sich doch auf die Dauer gegen die drei mächtigen Revolutionsheere unter Jourdan, Charbonnier und Pichegru nicht halten. Gegen C. wendete sich im April Pichegru nach dreitägigem Kampfe bei Courtray wurde ersterer zum Rückzuge gezwungen. Obwol bald darauf durch die herangekommene Hauptarmee bei Tournay geschlagen, rückte Pichegru nach deren Abzuge abermals vor. Da auch Menin und Ypern in feindliche Hände gefallen und im Centrum durch die verlorne Schlacht von Fleurus und den Verlust von Charleroi rückgängige Bewegungen eingeleitet worden waren, so zog C. , um nicht abgeschnitten zu werden, sich nach Gent zurück. Wegen gleichzeitiger Mißerfolge der Deutschen in der Rheinpfalz ergab sich des Weitern die Nothwendigkeit, die Niederlande ganz zu räumen. Josias von Coburg, nicht stark genug sein Unglück zu tragen, übergab am 28. August den Oberbefehl an C. Von Jourdan hart verfolgt, zog sich dieser nach mehreren Treffen hinter die Roer und dann hinter den Rhein zurück und ließ Cantonnements zwischen Mainz und Mühlheim beziehen.
Das J. 1795 sah C. als Reichsfeldzeugmeister und Oberbefehlshaber der 95000 Mann starken Niederrhein-Armee, während Wurmser mit der Oberrhein-Armee südlich des Neckar bis zur Schweizer Grenze stand zur Verbindung beider befand sich die Division Quosdanowitsch bei Heidelberg. Der Rhein schied die beiden Parteien, nur Mainz und Luxemburg waren am linken Ufer noch in deutschen Händen. Durch die Erfahrungen seiner Vorgänger nicht klug gemacht, vielleicht auch durch die Strategen des Wiener Hofkriegsrathes beeinflußt, zersplitterte C. seine Streitkräfte in einzelne Abtheilungen auf der ganzen Linie Düsseldorf-Philippsburg und verhielt sich vollständig defensiv. Nachdem bis zum Herbst die Heere sich beobachtend gegenüber gestanden, begannen die Franzosen im September die Feindseligkeiten. Am Niederrhein ging Jourdan zuerst bei Urdingen und dann an andern Punkten über den Fluß. Die vereinzelt stehenden österreichischen Corps fühlten sich zu schwach zum Widerstande und zogen sich auf C. gegen Schwetzingen zurück. Pichegru, dem feiger Weise die Festung Mannheim ohne Vertheidigung übergeben worden war, ging daselbst ebenfalls über den Rhein, blieb jedoch hier stehen, nachdem zwei vorgeschickte Divisionen | von Quosdanowitsch bei Handschuchsheim geschlagen worden waren. Nachdem nun C. , wenn auch nicht vollständig mit Absicht, seine ganze Armee versammelt hatte, ließ er ein schwaches Corps am Rhein stehen, ging mit seiner Hauptmacht Main aufwärts über diesen Fluß uud operirte, bei Höchst demonstrirend, um Jourdan's linke Flanke gegen dessen Rückzugslinie. Jourdan hob in Folge dessen die Einschließung von Mainz auf dem rechten Ufer sowie jene von Ehrenbreitstein auf und zog sich über die Lahn und Sieg und schließlich über den Rhein zurück. Durch eine thatkräftige Verfolgung auch mit wenigen Truppen hätte hier Jourdan's Heer für den ganzen Feldzug unschädlich gemacht werden können. Inzwischen hatte Wurmser den General Pichegru bei Mannheim geschlagen und diesen Platz auf dem rechten Ufer umschlossen. C. rückte nun, nachdem er die Verfolgung Jourdan's seiner Vorhut überlassen, nach Mainz. Am 20. October führte er mit 30000 Mann einen Ausfall gegen die durch elfmonatliche Arbeit und alle Mittel der Befestigung hergestellten Verschanzungen der 33000 Mann starken Belagerungsarmee aus: die Verschanzungen wurden erstürmt und der Feind zum Rückzuge gezwungen. Diese Niederlage veranlaßte nun auch den Abzug Pichegru's von Mannheim, dessen 11000 Mann starke Besatzung sich bald darauf an Wurmser ergab, als auch C. vor Mannheim erschienen war und die Festung auf dem linken Ufer eingeschlossen hatte. Hätte C. sich nicht mit halben Maßregeln begnügt, so wären seine Erfolge noch großartiger gewesen. Statt dessen gewannen die Franzosen abermals Zeit, so daß sogar Jourdan noch herbeikommen konnte, um Pichegru zu unterstützen. Gegen ersteren wendete sich nun C. von neuem, während Pichegru durch Wurmser festgehalten wurde. Die französischen Feldherren wagten jedoch keine Schlacht mehr, sondern zogen sich unter fortwährenden für die Oesterreicher und Reichstruppen günstigen Gefechten zurück. Ein für die Franzosen verhältnißmäßig vortheilhafter Waffenstillstand machte für dieses Jahr dem Kriege ein Ende. Anfangs Januar ging C. nach Wien, wo er mit großer Auszeichnung empfangen wurde. Indessen wurde getadelt, daß C. sich bei Abschluß des Waffenstillstandes so leicht hatte befriedigen lassen, so daß für einen vortheilhaften Frieden nicht genügend Grund gelegt war. C. kam hierüber mit dem Minister Thugut in Zwistigkeiten, und da ohnehin seine Gesundheit angegriffen war, so erbat er sich seine Entlassung. Er erhielt nun eine Verwendung im Hofkriegsrathe, starb aber fortwährend kränkelnd zwei Jahre nachher die Stadt Wien ließ ihm in Hernals ein prachtvolles Grabmal setzen.
Als Feldherr war C. besser als seine Vorgänger im Commando gegen die französische Republik. Er verlor nie den Kopf und wurde nie müde stets besorgt für das Wohl der ihm anvertrauten Truppen verstand er es auch, sie bei gutem Geiste zu erhalten. Doch besaß er nicht genug Initiative, und seine Kriegführung zeigte noch viel von der Passivität und Langsamkeit des Cordonkrieges er war sicher keiner von jenen Feldherren, welche dem Gegner Gesetze vorschreiben. Erst sein Nachfolger Erzherzog Karl schwang sich mehr empor zu einer thatkräftigen Kriegführung mit vereinigten Kräften.
Schels, Kriegsgeschichte der Oesterreicher, 1854. — Hirtenfeld, Maria-Theresia-Orden. — Widdern, Rhein und Rheinfeldzüge, 1869.
Franz Sebastian de Croix, Graf von Clerfayt, 1733-98 - History
Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer 1805 &ndash 1809
Ordered by Recruitment District
By Enrico Acerbi
Galicia (Ukrainian: Halychyna , Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien) is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine, named after Ukra і ni а n city of Halych. In 1772, Galicia was the largest part of the area annexed by Austria in the First Partition of Poland. As such, the Austrian region of Poland and what was later to become Ukraine was known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria to underline the Hungarian claims to the country. To the first partition of Poland was added the district of New or West Galicia in 1795 but at the peace of Vienna in 1809 West Galicia and Cracow were surrendered to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, and in 1810 part of East Galicia, including Tarnopol, was made over to Russia.
However, a large portion of ethnically Polish lands to the west was also added to the province, which changed the geographical reference of the term, Galicia. Lviv (Lemberg, Lwów) served as capital of Austrian Galicia, which was dominated by the Polish aristocracy, despite the fact that the population of the eastern half of the province was mostly Ukrainian, or "Ruthenian", as they were known at the time..
Western Galicia Lesser Poland (also "Little Poland", Polish: Małopolska) is one of the historical regions of Poland. It forms the southernmost part of the country. Actually it was known as New Galicia or Western Galicia (Polish: Nowa Galicja or Galicja Zachodnia, German: West-Galizien) and was an administrative region of the Habsburg Monarchy, created after the Third Partition of Poland in 1795. In 1803 it was merged with Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, but retained some autonomy. It existed until the Austrian defeat by Napoleon in 1809, when the region was attached to the Duchy of Warsaw by the Treaty of Schönbrunn.
Circles (Districts) see map-image above (data from a 1814 gazeteer)
Berezhany (Polish/Ruthenian :Brzeżany) - recruitment area (Kreis) Brzežany. Touched by the D&rsquonestr the Circle was crossed by the rivers Lipa and Zlota-Lipa. It had 3 towns, 16 large villages, 324 villages, 33904 houses, 43370 dwellings and 192452 souls.
Brzeżany First written record about the town dates to 1375. First it was a normal village, which by the privilege of the prince Wladislaw Opolski (Vladyslav Opolsky). Ukrainians (or Ruthenians/Rusyns as they were called then), who comprised the most part of Berezhany population, were undergoing the the greatest social and national oppression. They were excluded from the town administration institutions, suffered the violences, they were not even allowed to liver in town center. In the end of 16th century, Berezhany numbered 413 courtyards, where 2.000 people lived.
Czernowitz (Polish/Ruthenian :Chernivtsi)- recruitment area (Kreis) Duchy of Bukowina. Bukovina or Austrian Moldavia took the name from Stephan V called the Great, prince of Moldavia, who having defeated the Poles there, forced the people to an eternal cultivation of oaks in order to remember his victory. Bukow, in the local language, meant oak. It had 3 towns, 3 large villages, 267 villages, 38890 houses, 223139 souls.
Czernowitz was at the time of the Austrian Occupation (1775) an unimportant village. It was created a town in 1786, and at the beginning of the 19th century it numbered only 5000 inhabitants. In 1777 the Porte, under whose ruleship Moldavia was, ceded Bukowina to Austria. It was incorporated with Galicia in a single province in 1786.
Czortków (Polish/Ruthenian :Chortkiv) - recruitment area (Kreis) Zalesczyki (Czortków). The old Zalesczyki district was split in two parts, where Czortków became the northern and Kolomea the southern.
First mentioned in documents dating back to 1522. Chortkiv was founded in 1522 by J. Czortkowski with the right of Magdeburg law. During the uprisings of 1648 Czortkow was one of the bases of the peasant rebels. From 1672 to 1683 the city was under Turkish rule then under Polish rule from 1699 and under Austrian rule from 1772. Until 1779. Czortkow castle was the residence of the Potocki magnates. The town declined in the second half of the 17th century, during the Polish-Turkish wars. Under Austrian rule it was the center of the Chortkiv district later it became a county center.
Gródek &ndash Horodok (Polish/Ruthenian :Gródek Jagielloński) - recruitment area (Kreis) Zolkiew. It was one of the northern districts and had 4 towns, 18 large villages, 264 villages, 35434 houses, 48590 dwellings and one population of 198313 inhabitants.
Horodok Already in XIII century town started to play an important role in the political and economical life of principality of Halychyna and Volyn. Horodok lied on an important trade route, connecting East and West, North and South. Town was a famous salt trade center. In XIV century it was annexed to Poland. Polish famous lord and king Vladyslav the II Yahailo lived in the town for a long time. In 1389 Horodok got the right of Magdebourg. In XV and XVI centuries town suffered destruction from Tatar troops. In 1591 Ukrainians of Horodok created a public organization that defended national rights.
Zółkiew Zhovkva (Zolkiewka)The Ukrainian for Zolkiew would be Zhovkva, the Russian Zholkva. The first mention refers to 1368 as WinnikI Untill 1556 belongs to familly WysockI After being bought by S. Zolkiewskiego it's name was change to Zolkiew in 1598. From 1620 till 1629 did belong to Danilowich fammily and from 1629 to royal familly SobieskI From 1740 was a property of Count Radziwill's family . Magdeburg Right was given in 1663. In 16th century it was a largest congregation of jewis population in Poland and Ormian in 17th . In 1772 was anexed by Austrian Empire .
Kolomea (Polish/Ruthenian :Kolomyja)- recruitment area (Kreis) Kolomea. This Circle matched the ancient Podolia (capital Zniatyn which will be the future siege of the circle) and was raised from the southern part of the former large Zaleszczyki district (see above). It was crossed by the large D&rsquonestr river and by the Pruth at south. It had 1 main town, 7 large villages, 107 villages, 16126 houses and 19035 dwellings. It was one of the less populated: 84929 souls.
Kolomea is a very old town and is mentioned already in 1240, but the assertion that it was a Roman settlement under the name of Colonia is not proved. It was the principal town of the Polish province of Pokutia, and it suffered severely during the I5th and 16th centuries from the attacks of the Moldavians and the Tatars.
Jassel (Polish/Ruthenian :Jaslo) - recruitment area (Kreis) Jaslo. At the hungarian border, this Circle was of the smallest of Galicia. It was crossed by two main rivers, the Wisloka, at east, and the Jasiel. However an intricate web of smaller streams and channel croosed its territory. It had 5 towns, 11 large villages, 370 villages, 28523 houses and around 193857 inhabitants.
Jaslo The name derives from Old Polish common word for the "manger" or "trough [trof]" which sounded "jasło". In 1772, following the initial partition of Poland, Jasło region came under the rule of Austria. From 1780 years Lviv became the capital of Galicia and the siege of the governor. At that time Jaslo and adjacent areas were part of the Dukla Circle, which was one of the 18 new administrative units of Galicia. In 1790 Jaslo became the main administrative district and this fact positively influenced the development of the city. Jaslo at that time consisted of only 1500 inhabitants.
Lemberg (Polish/Ruthenian: Lwów/L&rsquoviv, latin Leopolis) - recruitment area (Kreis) Lemberg. A Circle of flatlands crossed by the Wereszyca rivers. It had 4 towns, 2 large villages, 148 villages, 18279 houses and 31463 dwellings with a populace of 134656 inhabitants.
Lemberg The inner town was formerly fortified, but the fortifications were transformed into pleasure grounds in 1811. L'viv was first mentioned in 1256 in connection with the fire of Kholm. but the first settlement appeared here in the 6th century. L'viv became the center of trade and commerce of the region. The city's location on the crossroads of trade routs led to its rapid economic development. It had 24000 souls in 1814.
Przemysl (Polish/Ruthenian :Peremyshl) - recruitment area (Kreis) Przemysl. A widely flat Circle, crossed by the San river. It had 5 towns, 12 large villages, 372 villages, 37008 houses, 51289 dwellings, and 210649 souls.
Przemysl Its location 12 km from the Polish-Ukrainian border-crossing Medyka, at the gateway to the Bieszczady Mountains, has directed its development strategy towards the town becoming a trade centre and an important transport junction
Reichshof (Polish/Ruthenian :Rzeszów) - recruitment area (Kreis) Rzeszów. This Circle had heavy forests in the northern part and was crossed by many rivers, of whom the most important were the San and the Wisloka. It had 4 towns, 12 large villages, 331 villages, 36804 houses and 52307 dwellings, with a population of 222669 souls.
Rzeszów A city of southeast Poland east of Crakow. Chartered in the 14th century, it passed to Austria in 1772. Its close proximity to Slovakia and Ukraine, crossings of major transportation routes leading from the north to the south and from the west to the east, made Rzeszów an important transportation hub
Saanig (Polish/Ruthenian :Sánok) - recruitment area (Kreis) Sanok. The Circle was crossed from north to south by the large river San and by the Wisloka. It had 10 towns, 10 large villages, 426 villages, 33148 houses, 51472 dwellings and 208472 souls.
Sánok was founded in 1339, and, in the same year, it obtained the Status of City. It is on the southern edge of its region, around half way between Rzeszów and Przemyśl. It is 45 km far from Jezioro Solińskie, on the river San banks and not far from its estuary.
Salzberg (Polish/Ruthenian :Bochnia) - recruitment area (Kreis) Bochnia. The smallest Circle in Galicia and one of the westernmost, Bochnia was crossed by the Vistula river (east-west) and by Raba river (north-south). It had 3 major towns, 9 large villages, 349 villages, 24219 houses, 37219 dwellings an a population of 160870 inhabitants.
Bochnia . The city of Bochnia lies 45 km east of Crakow, almost midway between Crakow and Tarnow. The city was established around 1200 CE and was closely linked to the discovery of salt deposits in the area (from which the name Salzberg : mountain of salt) .
Sambir (Polish/Ruthenian :Sambor)- recruitment area (Kreis) Sambor. One of the larger Galician Circles, it was crossed (east-west) by the river Dn&rsquoestr and by the river Stry in the south. In the Circle existed 7 towns, 3 large villages and 353 villages, 49715 houses and 59896 dwellings, with a populace of 237362 souls.
Sambor It was founded in the 12th century and served as an important center of the Halich princedom. In the 13th century, the Tatars destroyed it, and in the year 1241 it was burnt down. According to the calculations, there were 3486 inhabitants in 1760. The number was smaller in the 18th century than it had been in the 16th and 17th , due to the diminution of the population in 1705 as a result of the cholera epidemic. Official statistics came in the 19th, according to which Sambor had, in 1828, 1281 houses and 8616 inhabitants.
Sandec a Circle with an irregular shape and crossed by large rivers like the Dunajec and the Poprad. This Circle had 8 towns, 5 large villages, 386 villages, 28128 houses, 42919 dwellings and 186554 inhabitants.
Neusandez (Polish/Ruthenian :Nowy Sącz) - recruitment area (Kreis) Sandec. By far the largest town of the region is Nowy Sacz (Sonch), which lies above the confluence of the Dunajec (Dunayets) and Poprad, 25 miles (40 km) west of Gorlice. Despite its name, it had already celebrated its 800th anniversary. Chartered in 1298, it passed to Austria in 1772.
Stanislau (Polish/Ruthenian :Stanisławów) - recruitment area (Kreis) Stanislau. This was a Circle with large rivers crossing: the D&rsquonestr, the Pruth and the Bistrica. Its southern part was mountainous in the hungarian border. It had 6 towns, 18 large villages, 319 villages, 40414 houses and 52691 dwellings, with a population of 230122 inhabitants.
Stanislau Because of the large ethnic Polish population, the Polish town name, Stanislawow, was colloquially used by many people, in its shortened version of Stanislaw (pronounced Stanislav). Stanislau was founded by Stanislav Potocki (y. 1683).
Stryi (Polish/Ruthenian :Stryi) - recruitment area (Kreis) StryI The Circle, one of the largest in Galicia, is rather montainous and had 3 towns, 8 large villages, 289 villages, 30284 houses and 41551 dwellings with 171719 inhabitants.
StryI The town, on the road from Russia to Hungary, located on the Stryj riverside, falling into the Dniestr river, was settled in the valley, at the foot of East Bieszczady Mountains, part of Karpaty mountain chain. This is the same road that was chosen by Swietoslaw, the son-in-law of the Polish King Boleslaw Chrobry, Prince of Kijev and his large family to escape from his brother. According to old stories, here, not far from Stryj, in what is presently the large village of Siemiginow, Swietoslaw&rsquos seven sons were killed. Stryy was first populated by Jews in the late 1500's. The first synagogue was built in 1660. After Poland was partitioned, Stryy became part of the Austrian Empire in 1772
Tarnau (Polish/Ruthenian :Tarnów) - recruitment area (Kreis) Tarnów.This Circle was mountainous in its southern part with mosly hills than mountains . It had 5 towns, 9 large villages, 461 villages, 30773 houses, 47747 dwellings and 205244 souls.
Tarnow The first recorded mention of Tarnów was in 1125. In 1264 Daniel of Galicia and Bolesław V the Chaste met in the town to establish the borders of their domains. It was granted city rights on March 7, 1330 by Władysław I the Elbow-high. It was annexed by Habsburg Austria in 1772 during the First Partition of Poland. The Diocese of Tarnów was formed in 1785.
Ternopil (Polish/Ruthenian :Tarnopol) - recruitment area (Kreis) Tarnopol. Ternopil' was founded as a fortress in 1540. Despite frequent raids by the Tatars in the 16th and 17th centuries, it developed into a trade center. In 1772 it passed to Austria, and grew in the 19th century. The town came into being around the Polish castle-fortress. The locality where the town was founded was called "arnopil" - "the black-thorn field" may be because of the Polish "tarn" (thorn).
Zolochiv (Polish/Ruthenian :Złoczów/Zolochiv) - recruitment area (Kreis) Zloczów. One of the nothern Circles of Galicia crossed by many rivers among which the main were the Bug and the StryI It had 6 towns, 19 large villages, 299 villages, 32910 houses and 45779 dwellings with 191432 souls.
Zloczów The first mention refers to the town in 1483. In 1520 the town was given the Magdeburg Right. Zloczow was mentioned as a town in the fifteenth century, but gained the status of a city in 1523. It held two trade fairs a year and a weekly market day. During the sixteenth century the town was damaged heavily by the invasions of the Tartars. The Sobieski family became the owners in 1598. A citadel was built to guard the town from enemies and invasions, and in 1649 the Cossacks captured the town. In that year there was a plague that badly injured those who survived the war. From
1687 until the end of the eighteenth century there was also an Armenian community. The town also suffered frequent fires. In 1772 when the area was annexed to Austria, Zloczow became the capital of a district, which included the large and important community of Brody. Although the city was the capital of a district, the Jewish community was under the jurisdiction of the Brody Jewish community.
Western Galicia (Little Poland)
Krakau (Polish/Ruthenian :Kraków) - recruitment area (Kreis) Crakow city. History.Tradition assigns the foundation of Cracow to the mythical Krak, a Polish prince who is said to have built a stronghold here about A.D. 700. Its early history is, however, entirely obscure. It suffered from Tatar invasions in 1290 it was captured by Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and was held by the Bohemians until, in 1305, the Polish king Ladislaus Lokietek recovered it from Wenceslaus III Ladislaus made it his capital, and from this time until 1764 it remained the coronation and burial place of the Polish kings, even after the royal residence had been removed by Siegmund III (1587 1632) to Warsaw. On the third partition. of Poland in 1795 Austria took possession of Cracow but in. 1809 Napoleon wrested it from that power, and incorporated it with the duchy of Warsaw, which was placed under the rule of the king of Saxony.
The former Wojwodschaft ( Voivodeship) Krakau in 1775 had 180000 souls.Crakow was a royal large city with more than 4000 houses (around 16000 inhabitants in 1775 and maybe 24000 in 1809 &ndash 8894 inside city walls). 
Lublin (Polish/Ruthenian :Lublin) - recruitment area (Kreis) Lublin. The earliest, most significant settlement began in the 6th century, on a hill located in the suburb of Czwartek (in Polish Thursday, most likely in reference to the market day of the settlement). After the Third of the Partitions of Poland in 1795 Lublin was located in the Austrian empire, then since 1809 in the Duchy of Warsaw, and then since 1815 in the Congress Poland under Russian rule. The Wojwodschaft Lublin had, in 1778, around 250000 souls. Lublin town had 2623 souls (1829 houses).
Radom (Polish/Ruthenian :Radom) - recruitment area (Kreis) Radom. The original settlement dates back to 8th&ndash9th century. It was an early mediaeval town in the valley of the Mleczna River (approximately on the location of present-day Old Town). Around the 2nd half of 10th century, it turned into a fortified town called Piotrówka. Radom was founded in 1340, and it belonged to the Sandomierz Voivodeship. Radom capital of the Poviat (district) had, in 1778, 256 houses and 1160 inhabitants.
Sandomir (Polish/Ruthenian :Sandomierz) - recruitment area (Kreis) Kielce-Siedlec. The name of the city comes from Old Polish Sędomir, composed of Sędzi- (from the verb sądzić "to judge") and mir ("peace").After Polish lands were reunified in the 14th century, the former principality became the Sandomierz Voivodeship, incorporating large areas of southeastern Poland. At this time Sandomierz had about 3000 inhabitants and was one of the larger Polish cities. A great fire in 1757 and the First Partition of Poland in 1772, which placed Sandomierz in Austria, further reduced its status. As a result Sandomierz lost its role as an administrative capital. In 1809 the city was damaged during fighting between the forces of Austria and the Duchy of Warsaw during the Napoleonic Wars. The former Wojwodschaft ( Voivodeship) Sandomirs had, in 1775, 68825 houses, and around 415000 souls. Sandomir had 2060 inhabitants in 1778 (616 houses) and was the main town of the Powiat (district).
Kielce By 1761 Kielce had more than 4,000 inhabitants. Note: Siedlec is not to be confused with the town of Siedlce, capital of Podlachia (see topmost green part of the above map) which was no a western Galician town.
The last two circles were Galician, but considered as western Galician district for military purposes.
Myslenice The westernmost of the Galician Circles surrounded by those of Bochnia and Sandec (east), Hungary (south), the Silesia (north) was one of the smallest in Galicia. It comprised 11 towns, 1 fortress, 320. villages, 35311 houses and 248720 inhabitants.
Wadowitz (Polish/Ruthenian :Wadowice) - recruitment area (Kreis) Myslenice. The first permanent settlement in the area of today's Wadowice was founded in late 10th century or early 11th century. According to a local legend, the town was founded by certain &lsquoWad&rsquo or &lsquoWład&rsquo, a short form for the Slavic name of Ladislaus (Polish: &lsquoWładisław&rsquo).
Myslenice (German: Mischlenitz) The name of the city Myślenice goes back to the medieval male name "Myślimir. The first written records are from the years 1253-1258 in the "Code Tynieck&rdquo. There was a stronghold called "Mislimich&rdquo. It protected the trade route between Crakow and Węgry (Hungary) which ran on Myślenice. Since the first partition of Poland in 1772 Myślenice was one of Galicia and was part of Austria-Hungary . During this time the town was named Mischlenitz. Myślenice became the siege of a Circle. This happened until 1819, when Wadowice took over this function.
Zamosč (Polish/Ruthenian :Zamość)- recruitment area (Kreis) Zamość. Zamość owes its perfection to two men: Jan Zamoyski and Bernardo Morando. Nobleman Zamoyski wanted to build a private city in the middle of nowhere, and the architect Morando knew how to do it. They worked togheter for 25 years and created a masterpiece which we can still admire today. Little has changed in the general design since Zamoyski founded the city in 1580. Ambitious Zamoyski created a huge "country within the country". His lands within Poland spanned 6 400 km2 with 11 cities and over 200 villages. This was in addition to the royal estates he controlled of over 17 500 km2 with 112 cities and 612 villages.
He founded the private city of Zamość in order to circumvent royal tariffs and taxes as well as the capital for his mini-state and his managment centre. Zamoyski's lands functioned as an almost independent country - with its own army, judicature and university (Academy).
Austrian Order of Battle in Galicia-Lodomeria
Field commander: GdK Graf Heinrich Bellegarde
Crakow Division FML Friedrich Franz prince zu Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Crakow Brigade GM count Carl Civalart
Solec - IR 50 Stain &ndash (III battalion on 4 companies)
Sandomierz &ndash IR 34 Davidovich - (I and II Battalions of 6 companies III Battalion of 4 companies Grenadier division)
Pinczów &ndash IR 7 Schröder &ndash (half of III Battalion 2 companies) 
Neu-Slupia &ndash IR 22 Coburg &ndash (half of III Battalion 2 companies)
Konsk - 4th Hussars Hessen Homburg &ndash 8 squadrons
Crakow Brigade GM Franz Schulz von Rothbacker
Crakow - IR 9 Czartoryski &ndash (I and II Battalions or 6 companies Grenadier division )
Kety - IR 57 Joseph Colloredo &ndash (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Kalwarya - IR 15 Zach &ndash (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Niegardów - IR 10 Anton Mittrowsky &ndash (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Crakow Brigade GM Sebastian Solan Baron von Speth
Crakow - IR 55 Reuss Greitz &ndash (I and II Battalions or 6 companies Grenadier division )
Crakow &ndash 5th Cuirassier Sommariva &ndash 6 squadrons
Tarnów Division FML Ferdinand von Mondet
Tarnów Brigade GM Johann von Neustädter
Bochnia - IR 30 De Ligne &ndash (I and II Battalions or 6 companies Grenadier division )
Tarnów - IR 41 Kottulinsky &ndash (I and II Battalions or 6 companies Grenadier division )
Neusandez - IR 8 Archduke Ludwig - (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Mielec - IR 12 Manfredini - (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Krosno - IR 40 vacant Josef Mittrowsky &ndash (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Dukla &ndash IR 29 Lindenau - (half III battalion or 2 companies)
Myslenice - IR 56 Wenzel Colloredo &ndash (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Rzeszów Brigade GM Baron Johann von Mohr
Lancut &ndash IR 1 Kaiser Franz - (half III battalion or 2 companies)
Jaroslau - IR 9 Czartoryski &ndash (III battalion on 4 companies)
Rzeszów &ndash IR 20 Kaunitz - (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Jaroslau &ndash 1st Chevaulégers Kaiser Franz &ndash 8 squadrons
Rzeszów &ndash 7th Cuirassiers Lothringen &ndash 6 squadrons
Lemberg Division FML Earl Maximilian Merveldt
Lemberg Brigade GM Baron Peter von Dinnersberg
Lemberg - IR 30 De Ligne &ndash (III battalion on 4 companies)
Lemberg - IR 63 Baillet &ndash (III battalion on 4 companies)
Lemberg - IR 24 Strauch &ndash (III battalion on 4 companies)
Tarnopol - IR 46 Chasteler &ndash (III battalion on 4 companies)
Lemberg Brigade GM Gabriel (Gábor) von Hertelendy
Zamość - IR 23 Würzburg &ndash (III battalion on 4 companies)
Lublin - IR 55 Reuss Greitz &ndash (III battalion on 4 companies )
Konsko Wola - IR 38 Württemberg &ndash (III battalion on 4 companies)
Siedlec &ndash 1st Hussars Kaiser Franz &ndash 8 squadrons
Crakow &ndash 1st Artillery Regiment Schuhay &ndash 2 companies
Crakow &ndash 3rd Artillery Regiment Rouvroy &ndash 1 companies
Austrian Resident Units in Galicia
Territorial commander (interim): FML Friedrich Karl Wilhelm Prince von Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen
Vice-commander ad Latus: FML Earl Maximilian Merveldt
Galician Territorial Division Earl Merveldt
Lemberg Brigade GM Anton Bicking von Sobinak
Lemberg - IR 30 De Ligne &ndash (2 companies)
Lemberg - IR 63 Baillet &ndash (2 companies)
Lemberg - IR 24 Strauch &ndash (2 companies)
Lemberg - IR 46 Chasteler &ndash (2 companies)
Lemberg - IR 58 Beaulieu &ndash (2 companies)
Lemberg - IR 41 Kottulinsky &ndash (2 companies)
Jaroslau - IR 9 Czartoryski &ndash (2 companies)
Sambor - IR 44 Bellegarde &ndash (2 companies)
Dukla &ndash IR 29 Lindenau - (1 company)
Zolkiew &ndash 12th Palatinal Hussars&ndash 1 squadron
Crakow Brigade GM Carl Starczynsky von Pittkau
Neusandez - IR 8 Erzherzog Ludwig &ndash (1 company)
Tarnów - IR 12 Manfredini - (1 company)
Krosno - IR 40 vacant Josef Mittrowsky &ndash (1 company)
Myslenice - IR 56 Wenzel Colloredo &ndash (1 company)
Kety - IR 57 Joseph Colloredo &ndash (1 company)
Kalwarya - IR 15 Zach &ndash (1 company)
Zator - IR 10 Anton Mittrowsky &ndash (1 company)
Crakow &ndash 1st Chevaulégers Kaiser Franz &ndash 1 squadron
Tarnów Brigade GM Bernhard von Grosser
Zamość - IR 23 Würzburg &ndash (2 companies)
Zamość - IR 55 Reuss Greitz &ndash (2 companies)
Lublin - IR 38 Württemberg &ndash (2 companies)
Sándomierz Brigade FML Ignaz von Eggermann
Lancut &ndash IR 1 Kaiser Franz - (1 company)
Rzeszów &ndash IR 20 Kaunitz - (1 company)
Sándomierz &ndash IR 7 Schröder &ndash (1 company)
Sándomierz - IR 50 Stain &ndash (2 companies)
Sándomierz &ndash IR 22 Coburg &ndash (1 company)
Total of Galician dGivision &ndash 36 infantry companies or 7480 men &ndash 2 cavalry squadrons or 125 men.