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U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann .The standard history of the development of American destroyers, from the earliest torpedo boat destroyers to the post-war fleet, and covering the massive classes of destroyers built for both World Wars. Gives the reader a good understanding of the debates that surrounded each class of destroyer and led to their individual features.
James Lawrence stood at the center of naval action in the War of 1812. As commander of the USS Hornet, he became the first American naval officer to capture a British vessel, the privateer Dolphin, when the war started. In March of 1813, the Navy promoted Lawrence to full captain in acknowledgment of his service and gave him command of the frigate USS Chesapeake, which he sailed out to sea that June to confront the British frigate HMS Shannon blockading the port in Boston. The Chesapeake was the larger ship and more heavily armed, but it had suffered heavy damage in recent years and was quickly repaired to make it seaworthy. The two ships fired on each other at close range, but it soon became clear that the British vessel had far better command of the sea and did heavy damage to the Chesapeake's officers and gun crews. Lawrence tried to rally his men and prepare a boarding party in the confusion. In the midst of battle, Lawrence fell mortally wounded by a British sharpshooter and was quickly carried below deck. Before he died, James Lawrence gave one final command to his crew: "Don't give up the ship," and true to form, no one on the Chesapeake officially surrendered to the British, even as they were overwhelmed by the enemy sailors and marines. Lawrence died # OnThisDay June 4, 1813.
The loss of Lawrence greatly saddened many in the Navy, as he was incredibly popular and generous with his peers, superiors, and subordinates. Most affected of all was his friend Oliver Hazard Perry, who named his flagship the USS Lawrence, which flew a blue flag emblazoned with Lawrence's final command into the Battle of Lake Erie. "Don't Give Up the Ship" remains the watchword of the United States Navy to this day. As for Lawrence himself, he was buried with honors by his enemies in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Later, his body was finally laid to rest in the Trinity Church Cemetery in Manhattan, where it remains today.
Kobilica je položena 10. travnja 1899. u brodogradilištu Fore River Ship & Engine Company u Weymouthu. Porinut je 7. studenog 1900. i u operativnu uporabu primljen 7. travnja 1903.
Operativna uporaba Uredi
Dodijeljen 2. Torpednoj Flotili, Lawrence je služio duž Istočne obale i u Karibima preko četiri godine. Ljeti je sudjelovao u vježbama uz obale Nove Engleske a zimi uz Key West. U Philadelphiji je 14. studenog 1906. povučen iz uporabe. 
U službu je vraćen 23. srpnja 1907. kako bi s Torpednom Flotilom nastavio djelovanje u okolici Norfolka sve do proljeća kada je sudjelovao u plovidbi oko Južne Amerike do San Diega kao podrška Velikoj Bijeloj Floti.
Kao dio 3. Torpedne Flotile, Lawrence je služio na pacifičkoj obali gotovo cijelo desetljeće, ploveći sve od Kanade na sjeveru do Paname na jugu. Ljeto 1914. proveo je uz obale Meksika štiteći američke i druge strane državljane tijekom nemira uzrokovanih tamošnjom revolucijom. Ulaskom Sjedinjenih država u Prvi svjetski rat Lawrence se prebazirao u Središnju Ameriku gdje je štitio ulaz u Panamski kanal. Ovu je dužnost obavljao do svibnja 1918. kada je premješten u Key West na Floridi. Na početku 1919. je otplovio u Philadelhiju gdje je i konačno povučen iz operativne uporabe 20. lipnja. 3. siječnja 1920. prodan je privatniku Josephu G. Hitneru.
U.S.S. LONG BEACH
The USS LONG BEACH (CGN-9), a nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser, was commissioned on 9 SEP 1961. USS LONG BEACH served her country for 33 years, 7 months and 22 days, until decommissioned on 1 MAY 1995. USS LONG BEACH was the first nuclear powered guided missile cruiser. LONG BEACH was first assigned to the Atlantic Fleet. She deployed to the North Atlantic and Mediterranean, then circumnavigating the world with the nuclear powered USS ENTERPRISE and USS BAINBRIDGE in Operation Sea Orbit. LONG BEACH then refueled transferring to the Pacific Fleet with a homeport of Long Beach, CA. USS LONG BEACH then began a long series of Western Pacific deployments, alternating with periods of maintenance and upkeep. In late 1993 and into 1994 USS LONG BEACH performed her "twilight tour" with deployments in Central America and the Caribbean in a Counter Narcotics role. Subsequently Long Beach arrived in Norfolk, VA in May 1994 and was decommissioned in July. 1994. She awaits dismantling at PSN, Bremerton, WA along with her sister nuclear powered Cold Warriors.
The USS LONG BEACH (CGN-9) deployment history and significant events of her service career follow:
USS Lawrence (DD-8) at Sea - History
By STEVEN BEARDSLEY | STARS AND STRIPES Published: May 23, 2014
NAPLES, Italy — After a wave swept a Navy helicopter and two pilots off the flight deck of a destroyer in the Red Sea last year, early reports described a freak accident caused by a “rogue wave.” But a recently released investigation points to the speed of the ship as it changed course, and the admiral overseeing the report has faulted the ship’s commander for the accident.
U.S. Pacific Fleet commanding officer Adm. Harry B. Harris Jr. also recommended the Navy review protocols for flight operations on “low freeboard” ships, or those with flight decks that are especially close to the water.
Navy pilots Lt. Cmdr. Landon L. Jones, 35, and Chief Warrant Officer 3 Jonathan S. Gibson, 32, died after their MH-60S helicopter broke its chains and slid off the flight deck of the USS William P. Lawrence on the afternoon of Sept. 22, 2013, the result of a large wave hitting the aircraft as the ship rolled violently. Both men were still inside the aircraft when it plunged overboard.
In a 10-page assessment of the investigation, which was released in April and recently made public by the Navy, Harris faulted a decision by the Lawrence’s commanding officer, Cmdr. Jana A. Vavasseur, to turn the ship immediately after the helicopter landed on the flight deck. Combined with the ship’s speed, the move put the vessel into rough “quartering seas,” he said, causing it to roll as large waves hit the deck.
Although the maneuvers followed protocol, they increased the risk of an accident because of the destroyer’s low freeboard, he wrote.
“There was time to rectify the situation by simply reducing speed after taking (the helicopter) aboard,” Harris wrote. “[A] significant reduction in speed, thereby creating a more stable platform, could have been achieved in seconds.”
The admiral promised “appropriate administrative action” for Vavasseur. The former CO is now serving in Coronado, California.
The accident occurred as the Lawrence sped to rejoin the USS Nimitz Carrier Strike Group, with which it had deployed from Coronado. The helicopter, part of a logistics resupply for the Lawrence, landed on the flight deck at 12:37 p.m. At the time, the ship was on a course that placed wave impacts to its rear.
Immediately after the helicopter was chained, Vavasseur and the officer on deck turned the ship 60 degrees to change course. Rolls became more pronounced, according to the report, including one at 12 degrees to starboard. The ship then turned five more degrees, and the rolls worsened.
Around 12:44, the ship rolled 13.1 degrees to port and then 16.6 degrees to starboard. The chains attached to the helicopter tightened but held during the port roll, one officer told investigators. A wall of water then shot up on the starboard roll and struck the aircraft, witnesses said. The fuselage shook, the tail rotors struck the deck and the aircraft began to turn on the deck before falling off the port side.
The helicopter tail and rotor remained on the flight deck, as did both pilot doors. Rescue efforts over the next 26 hours combed an area of 100 square nautical miles with three destroyers, a replenishment ship, seven small boats and multiple aircraft. Searchers found debris, but they didn’t find the pilots.
Harris’ conclusions on the cause of the accident differ from those of investigating officers. They found that although the new course “likely put the ship in a position to experience the large rolls . it was not reasonably foreseeable that such a large roll or rolls would occur.”
Protocol permits ship maneuvers to begin as soon as an aircraft is chained to the deck, a rule followed in the case of the Lawrence. The investigation also notes that the sea state — or the level of swells — was not considered dangerous at the time.
All other officers who reviewed the report agreed with investigators’ assessment, save Harris and the commander of Naval Air Forces, Vice Adm. D.H. Buss.
“In this evolution, a series of seemingly minor, innocuous misjudgments had a cumulative catastrophic outcome when graded by the harshness and unforgiving nature of operations at sea,” Buss wrote in his response to the investigation.
The Navy made an interim change to its helicopter operations procedure in February, requiring maneuvers stop altogether during operations on deck on a low freeboard ship. Harris also ordered a safety stand-down for all helicopter commands, frigates and destroyers before May 30, and he requested a Navy review of all past incidents involving waves striking flight decks.
He wrote that Vavasseur was “ill-served” by the lack of training and discussion within the surface warfare community on the perils of low-freeboard ships. He anticipated criticism for his recommendations, noting that some “will contend that my conclusion is unreasonable, perhaps even harsh and uncompromising.” Yet, he said, the final responsibility for a ship rests with its commanding officer.
“While procedural compliance is essential, the full scope of responsibilities in our profession extends beyond simple compliance and blind obedience — we require more,” he wrote.
Historic WWII submarine USS Cod arrives in Erie for repairs
ERIE, Pa. (Tribune News Service) — The U.S.S. Cod, a World War II submarine that battled Japanese ships and performed the only international sub-to-sub rescue in history, arrived in Erie, Pa. early Monday morning for hull repairs.
The Cod, which functions as a floating wartime museum in Cleveland, embarked on the 100-nautical mile trip — via tugboat — on Sunday, and arrived at Erie’s DonJon Shipbuilding & Repair around 1:30 a.m. Monday.
The submarine will be drydocked at the shipyard for about six weeks to eight weeks as workers repair its underwater hull, apply a fresh coat of paint and remedy the vessel’s pitting, a type of corrosion caused by years of saltwater and freshwater exposure.
Rick Hammer, general manager of DonJon, said the submarine should be drydocked and “up on the blocks” by Tuesday afternoon.
“This is, as far as I know, the first time this has ever happened here — and most likely, probably the last time it will happen here,” Hammer said. “There’s not too many subs on the lakes, and not too many WWII subs on the lakes. It’s a one-off opportunity and we’re excited to get going.”
Paul Farace, president of the U.S.S. Cod Submarine Memorial, said he was nervous about the 14-hour trip to Erie. Indeed, this was the Cod’s first voyage since its last drydocking in 1963 in Lorain, Ohio.
But fortunately for Farace and his crew, who remained aboard the Cod during the trip, the vessel stayed intact.
“It was dry as a desert (inside),” Farace said. “It was just amazing that the sub that we had known for decades as a very stable, stationary ship was now rolling and heaving with the lake swells.”
Not everything was smooth sailing, however.
As the submarine pulled out of its perch at Cleveland’s North Coast Harbor via tugboat, its bow swiped a neighboring U.S. Coast Guard vessel, the Morro Bay.
The Coast Guard said the 140-foot Bay class icebreaking tug sustained superficial damage to its hull and superstructure.
The Cod also sustained a “nick” in its bow, Farace said.
“It was like backing out of your driveway and you bump the neighbor’s car,” he said.
The Coast Guard said the incident is still under investigation.
As the Cod pulled into Erie around 1:30 a.m., Farace said he was “gobsmacked” by a large swell of Erie residents who cheered the submarine’s arrival.
“We fired two deck gun salutes to honor Erie,” he said. “I think we may have scared a couple people.”
The Cod was towed by Michigan-based Malcolm Marine Inc.
The submarine will not be open for tours during repairs.
The Cod, launched in March 1943, conducted seven war patrols in the South Pacific and sank roughly 36,000 tons of enemy shipping.
It also performed history’s only international submarine-to-submarine rescue, when it saved the crew of the Dutch submarine O-19 after it got stuck on a reef in 1945.
“For three days, the Cod was kind of a joint Dutch-American submarine,” Farace said. “The Dutch were really touched by that and they adopted Cod as an honorary Dutch submarine.”
The Dutch flag still flies at the Cod Memorial site in Cleveland.
The Cod was decommissioned in 1946, reactivated in 1951 and mothballed again in 1954. The Cod was later towed through the newly opened St. Lawrence Seaway en route to Cleveland in 1959, where it served as a training vessel until 1971.
For over 200 years, Constellation ships have navigated the world's oceans defending America's interests. In 1797, the first ship of the U.S. Navy, the USF "frigate" Constellation was commissioned. This frigate's name originated from the flag of the Continental Congress. Because of her swift sailing speed and handling ability, USF Constellation soon became known as the "Yankee Racehorse." In 1854, the Sloop of War Constellation was commissioned to carry on famous Constellation's name. This ship was heavily involved in finding and capturing slave trade ships and training for brave seamen. Following the Sloop of War in 1961, the aircraft carrier Constellation was built. Known as "America's Flagship," she continued the tradition of always being first to answer her nation's call.
The first Constellation initially was a frigate designed by naval constructors Joshua Humphreys and Josiah Fox. However, plans were later altered in its execution by builder David Stodder, and superintendent of shipbuilding, Captain Thomas Truxtun. After the construction of Constellation was finished at Sterrett Shipyard, Baltimore, MD, she launched on September 7, 1797.
Constellation convoyed American merchantmen at the outset (from June through August 1798), before sailing for the West Indies to protect United States' commerce. Under the command of Captain Thomas Truxtun, she sailed for the Caribbean in December 1798. Subsequently, on February 9, 1799, the Constellation captured a French 40-gun frigate, L'Insurgente, in battle off Nevis, West Indies. In a hard-fought victory, she brought her prize into port. In the succeeding months, Constellation additionally encountered and seized two French privateers, Diligent and Union.
After a brief voyage under Captain Samuel Barron, Constellation was later commanded once more by Truxtun. Under this new command change, she sailed for the West Indies in December 1799.
On the evening of February 1, 1800, the Constellation engaged with a 52-gun frigate, the Vengeance, in a lengthy, furious battle. Vengeance twice struck her colors (lowered her flag in surrender) and was close to sinking. However, with a stroke of luck, Vengeance utilized the darkness of the night to escape from Constellation, who was unable to pursue further because of the loss of her mainmast.
In May 1800, Constellation additionally gained more recognition for recapturing three American merchantmen. At the end of the Quasi-War with France, Constellation returned to home waters, where misfortune awaited her. While anchoring in Delaware Bay on April 10, 1801, the ship got caught in winds and an ebb tide that laid her over on her beam ends, causing extensive repairs.
Under Commodore Robert Morris, and later, under Commodores Samuel Barron and John Rodgers, Constellation sailed with the squadron that served in the blockade of Tripoli in May 1802. She traveled widely throughout the Mediterranean during 1804 to show the flag of the United States in demonstration of our nation's seapower strength.
In June 1805, Constellation evacuated a contingent of U.S. Marines and diplomatic personages from Derne at the conclusion of a fleet-short operation against Tripoli. Additionally, she took part in a squadron movement against Tunis that culminated in peace terms in August 1805. She later returned to the United States in November 1805, mooring at Washington where she was later placed in ordinary until 1812.
Constellation then underwent extensive repairs at Washington during 1812 and 1813. With the advent of war with England approaching, Constellation was dispatched to Hampton Roads under the command of Captain Charles Stewart. Shortly after her arrival in January 1813, Constellation was effectively blockaded by an imposing British fleet. Unable to reach the open sea, her presence protected fortifications at Craney Island.
In the wake of the War of 1812, naval action resumed against the Barbary powers that had enriched themselves considerably during the struggle with England. Constellation, attached to the Mediterranean Squadron under Commodore Stephen Decatur, sailed from New York on May 20, 1815 and joined in the capture of the Algerian frigate, Mashuda, on June 17, 1815. Treaties of peace soon ensued Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. Constellation remained with the squadron under Commodores William Bainbridge, Isaac Chauncey, and John Shaw to enforce the accords, returning to Hampton Roads in December 1817.
Except for brief periods under repair in 1828-29, 1832, 1834-35, and 1838-39, Constellation's career through the mid-point 19th century proved varied and colorful. From November 12, 1819 to April 24, 1820, she served as flagship of Commodore Charles Morris on the Brazil Station, which entailed protecting American commerce against privateers and supporting the negotiation of trade agreements with South American nations.
On July 25, 1820, she sailed for the first time to Pacific waters where she joined the Squadron of Commodore Charles Stewart. For two years, Constellation protected American shipping off the coast of Peru, an area where that erupted into revolt against Spain.
In 1827, Constellation acted briefly as flagship for the West India Squadron. She participated in a twofold mission involving the eradication of the last of the pirates and the interception of slavers operating in the area.
In August 1829, she cruised to the Mediterranean to watch over American shipping and to collect indemnities from previous losses suffered by U.S. merchantmen. En route to her station, she carried the American ministers to France and England to their posts of duty.
Arriving in the United States during November 1831, she underwent minor repairs and departed again for the Mediterranean in April 1832 where she remained until an outbreak of cholera forced her to sail for home in November 1834.
In October 1835, Constellation sailed for the Gulf of Mexico to assist in crushing the Seminole uprising. She landed shore parties to relieve the Army garrisons and sent her boats on amphibious expeditions. After a successful mission, she then cruised with the West India Squadron until 1838, serving part of this period in the capacity of flagship for Commodore Alexander Dallas.
During the 1840's, Constellation circumnavigated the globe. Serving as flagship to Captain Kearny and the East India Squadron in March 1841, her mission was to safeguard American lives, property against loss in the Opium War, and enable negotiation of commercial treaties.
Afterward, in May 1843, she arrived at the Hawaiian Islands to help keep them from becoming a British protectorate. Thereafter, she sailed homeward making calls at South American ports.
Ultimately laid up in ordinary at Norfolk, Virginia from 1845 to 1853, Constellation was broken up there in 1853.
The second Constellation was a sloop designed by John Lenthall and constructed at the Norfolk Navy Yard, Virginia. Commissioned on July 28, 1855, this sloop later departed under Captain Charles H. Bell for a 3 year cruise with the Mediterranean Squadron to protect American interests.
While on station in July 1856, Constellation was dispatched to protect American lives and property at Malaga, Spain, during a revolution in that country. While cruising in the Sea of Marmora the same year, she rescued a barque in distress and received an official message in appreciation from the court of the Austrian emperor.
Constellation was detached from the Mediterranean Squadron on April 17, 1858 after a brief cruise in Cuban waters where she safeguarded American commerce against unlawful search on the high seas. She later returned to the New York Navy Yard on June 5, 1858, and was then decommissioned at Boston on August 13 the same year.
Re-entering active service in June 1859 as flagship of the U.S. Africa Squadron, Constellation took station off the mouth of the Congo River on November 21, 1859. She captured the brig Delicia during the mid watch on December 21, 1859 "without colors or papers to show her nationality… completely fitted in all respects for the immediate embarcation [sic] of slaves. "
On September 26, 1860, Constellation's entire crew actively "trim[med] the vessel for the chase", and even wet the sails "so they would push the sloop along". Successfully, she captured the "fast little bark" Cora (which showed no flag and carried 705 slaves), nearly running down the slaver in the darkness. When captured, the slavers were impounded and sold at auction. Their captains required to post bond and await trial, while their crews were landed at the nearest port and released. The newly freed slaves were taken to Monrovia, Liberia. The U.S. government paid a bounty of $25 for each freed slave freed, and "prize money" for each impounded ship to be divided among the crew proportionally according to rank.
In April 19, 1860, one week after Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter, President Abraham Lincoln issued a proclamation declaring a blockade of southern ports. On May 2, he then called for the enlistment of 18,000 additional seamen. Following the president's orders, Constellation seized the brig Triton on May 21, 1861, which being the U.S. Navy's first capture of the Civil War. Although Constellation's men found no slaves on board the captured vessel, they noted that ". every preparation for their reception had been made. ".
Ordered home in August 1861 under Captain Thomas A. Dornin's command, Constellation reached Portsmouth Navy Yard, New Hampshire, on September 28 the same year. Upon arrival, she received orders to sail to the Mediterranean, where her economy and endurance could outperform less reliable steam ships, as well as guard Union merchant ships against attack by Confederate cruisers and commerce raiders.
On March 11, 1862, Constellation sailed from Portsmouth under the command of Commodore Henry K. Thatcher. Arriving to the Mediterranean on April 19, Constellation spent two years (April 1862 to May 1864) engaged in patrolling. Constellation assisted on blockading the Confederate warship Sumter, who was abandoned by her captain and officers except for a token, caretaker crew, at Gibraltar. Later, she participated in the attempt to prevent the Confederate Navy from taking possession of the British-built steamer, Southerner, in Italy for use as a commerce raider.
Returning home through the West Indies, Constellation operated briefly in the latter region. Written by one of her sailors, "trying to capture Rebel privateers and cruisers and blockade runners. The process of reasoning . seems to be that our ship is supposed to be in European waters, and there is no United States warship resembling her cruising about here, and consequently she might approach closely to a Rebel vessel or blockade runner without exciting suspicion. "
With the enlistment of most of the crew expiring, Admiral David G. Farragut ordered Constellation to Hampton Roads on November 27, 1864. After pursuing a blockade-runner along the coast, Constellation reached Fortress Monroe on Christmas Day in 1864. In January 1865, the men whose enlistments had expired were "paid off" and discharged. The remainder of the crew was then transferred to St. Lawrence, while the officers were sent on leave to await orders. Constellation finished the Civil War as a Receiving Ship at Norfolk, Virginia, and later at Philadelphia, until 1869.
Later recommissioned on May 25, 1871, Constellation took midshipmen (also classed as "naval cadets" at varying periods) on their summer training cruises for the next twenty-two years. In 1871-1872, she received further modifications to be utilized for gunnery instruction with a main battery of eight 9-inch Dahlgren guns, one 100-pound Parrott Rifle, and one 11-inch Dahlgren gun.
During her assignment with the Naval Academy, Constellation received several special missions that halted her training regimen. From March to July 1878, she transported exhibits to Paris Exposition in France. On November 10, 1879, she was commissioned for a special voyage to Gibraltar to carry crew and stores for the flagship at Mediterranean Squadron, to later return to New York.
From March to June 1880, she carried relief supplies to victims of famine in Ireland. To complete the mission, Constellation's armament and some ballast were removed. Carpenters at the New York Navy Yard built bins on the orlop deck to carry over 2,500 barrels of potatoes and flour. Upon arrival in Queenstown on April 20, she offloaded the cargo onto lighters and took on ballast for the return trip.
Reactivated in September 1892, Constellation sailed for Gibraltar to assemble works of art for the Columbian Exposition. Additionally, she stopped at Naples and Le Havre, and ultimately returned back to New York in February 1893. Afterward, Constellation departed on her final training cruise to Gibraltar on June 7, 1893, later returning under sail for the last time on August 29. On September 2, 1893, she was placed out of commission in Annapolis, Maryland, and was subsequently towed by the tug Leyden to Norfolk, Virginia for repairs.
Constellation was later converted to a stationary training ship after reaching Newport on May 22, 1894. She remained a permanently moored vessel with the exception of two excursions and occasional trips to the repair yard into the second decade of the 20th century. In June 1904, Constellation was dry-docked at the New York Navy Yard for extensive survey and repair.
Kept for her historic value and for conducting training on her spars, rigging and sails, Constellation remained in Newport, Virginia. She saw decreased activity for the next twenty years until the Navy then discontinued sail training in 1920.
In recognition of the one-hundredth anniversary of the writing of the National Anthem, the National Star Spangled Banner Centennial commission asked that Constellation partake in the celebration. Acting Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the vessel restored "as she appeared in 1814," with minimize costs that "include only such general details as would be noticed by the layman."
Constellation, towed to Norfolk by the tug Uncas, underwent the necessary modifications like 19th-century ordnance fabricated at the Boston Navy Yard, dummy sails stuffed with straw, and alterations like the removal of the 1880's-era bridge platform and 1890's deck housing. She was then towed to the harbor in Baltimore, Maryland, where she lay on display from September 7 (the anniversary of the 1797 frigate's launching) till October 29, 1914.
Afterward, Constellation was towed to Washington, DC, where she lay on display from October 31 to December 4 the same year. After repairs at Norfolk in December, she returned to training duty at Newport on May 19, 1915.
On May 15, 1926, Constellation was towed to Philadelphia and moored alongside the second-line light cruiser Olympia (CL-15), which had been Admiral George Dewey's flagship at the Battle of Manila Bay in 1898.
Constellation made her last public appearance as a commissioned U.S. Navy ship during the ceremonies accompanying the 150th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1926. After a short dry docking at Philadelphia, she was towed back to Newport in November.
On June 16, 1933 the Navy Department placed an order for Constellation's decommissioned status for preservation as a naval relic. Numerous surveys were conducted and estimates given for the cost of restoring the vessel as a national historic shrine, but no decisions on the ship's fate were taken. Global conflict, however, soon revitalized Constellation's active service.
Recommissioned on August 24, 1940, she was classified as a miscellaneous, unclassified, auxiliary, IX-20, on January 8, 1941. On May 21, 1941, Constellation was designated a relief flagship for Admiral Ernest J. King, Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet. Subsequently, with King's appointment as Chief of Naval Operations at the beginning of 1942, the venerable sloop continued in this capacity under Vice Admiral Royal E. Ingersoll from January 19 to July 20, 1942, when the flag was shifted to the gunboat Vixen (PG-53). Ingersoll once more used Constellation as his flagship during 1943-1944.
Plans to memorialize Constellation brought her to Boston in October 1946, however, a lack of funds delayed the project. Decommissioned for the last time on February 4, 1955, the old ship was then moved to Baltimore in a floating dry-dock for restoration and preservation as a historic ship by a private, non-profit organization.
With little money and no government funds available, restoration took nearly a decade before the public was allowed on board. During that period, the ship was configured to resemble the 1797 frigate Constellation, which had originally been built in Baltimore.
In 1968, the ship was relocated to the Inner Harbor to serve as the centerpiece of the city's revitalization effort. Lack of maintenance funds, however, resulted in the ship having a 36-inch hog in her keel, a severely damaged structure, and significant dry rot that lasted over the next two decades.
In 1994, Constellation's rigging was removed and she was closed to the public. A newly established Constellation Foundation raised the funds needed for a major renovation project on the ship. After the hull of renovations, the repaired sloop-of-war returned to her permanent berth in Baltimore's Inner Harbor on July 2, 1999.
Like her famous namesakes, USS Constellation (CV-64) has a proud and distinguished record. Connie, as her crew affectionately calls her, has almost 40 years of service. She has set her sail into harm's way from Yankee Station off the coast of Vietnam to the turbulent waters of the Arabian Gulf.
Built at the New York Naval Shipyard as the second ship in the Kitty Hawk class of aircraft carriers, Connie was commissioned on October 27, 1961, under the motto "Spirit of the Old, Pride of the New." She has been home ported at the Naval Air Station North Island in San Diego since September 1962.
Just like the Frigate Constellation, America's newest Navy ship was immediately put to the test. In response to North Vietnamese attacks on U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin in August 1964, Constellation departed from a scheduled port visit to Hong Kong and was the first U.S. warship to launch strikes against North Vietnamese vessels and bases.
Over the next eight years, Constellation returned to the South China Sea for a total of seven combat cruises. She conducted air strikes against heavily fortified North Vietnamese positions, engaged with naval targets, and shot down enemy aircraft.
In May 1972, Lt. Randy Cunningham and Ltjg. Willie Driscoll of Fighter Attack Squadron 96, became America's first fighter aces of the Vietnam War by downing three MiGs during vicious fighting over North Vietnam. The extraordinary effort brought down five enemy aircraft in four months. Due to her actions in Southeast Asia, President Richard Nixon awarded the Presidential Unit Citation to Constellation.
In 1975, Connie was re-designated "CV" from "CVA" following a complex overhaul to the flight deck. This enabled her to deploy with the S-3A Viking (anti-submarine) and F-14 Tomcat (fighter) aircraft. Newly refurbished, Connie began her 10th deployment in April 1977. This included a first port call by a U.S. carrier to Pattaya, Thailand.
In September 1978, Connie sailed west once more while on her 11th overseas deployment. The ship was extended on station in the Arabian Gulf because of the Iranian hostage crisis. Her service earned her the Navy and Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal. While on her 12th deployment to the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans, Constellation set a new endurance record for the time by remaining on station for 110 consecutive days.
In the summer of 1981, Connie hosted President Ronald Reagan on board, which resulted as a watershed moment in the carrier's illustrious history. Reagan presented a Presidential Flag to the ship and proclaimed Constellation as "America's Flagship" - a motto which is used to this day.
In 1982, Constellation returned back to the yards in Bremerton, Washington. Naval aviation had undergone vast changes since 1961. When Connie came out of the yards in 1984 two weeks early and under budget, it was completely modernized to accommodate those advancements. One facet of the ship's upgrade was the ability to carry the Navy's newest strike fighter, the F/A-18 Hornet. She was additionally fitted with the new Phalanx radar-guided Gattling gun, two new flush deck catapults, and the NATO Sea Sparrow Missile System. During WestPac 1987, Constellation once again found itself in the spotlight by providing vital air cover in the escorting of U.S. flagged oil tankers through the Arabian Gulf.
In February 1990, Constellation left San Diego, returning to the East Coast for a three-year overhaul. The $800 million Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) was completed in Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in March 1993, which added an estimated 15 years to the carrier's operational life. The overhaul saw upgrades to virtually every system on the ship.
After completing one of the most successful work-up schedules in Navy history, Constellation departed San Diego on June 18, 1999 to begin her 19th overseas deployment. Connie immediately put her fighting skills to the test by conducting a Joint Task Force Exercise (JTFEX), which was the first time ever that a carrier has conducted JTFEX at the beginning of a deployment. With increased tensions between North and South Korea, Connie headed for the Korean theatre to closely monitor the situation and to provide a calming influence. After port calls in Pusan, ROK Yokosuka, Japan Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Connie entered the Arabian Gulf on August 28. She spent the next 10 weeks flying combat air patrols over the Iraqi no-fly zones in support of Operation Southern Watch.
In May 2001, Captain John Miller assumed command from Captain James Kelly. Just as Captain Thomas Truxtun left an indelible imprint on our nation's naval heritage as Constellation's first Commanding Officer in 1797, so too has Captain Kelly continued that heritage by guiding the Navy's finest crew on the nation's best carrier. As Connie's 30th Commanding Officer, Captain Miller will continue this legacy and add to the illustrious history of America's Flagship.
Constellation then returned to San Diego, CA on September 15, 2001 after her 20th overseas deployment. On October 27, 2001, the USS Constellation CVA/CV-64 Association, officers and crew of the Constellation celebrated her 40 years of proud service.
On June 2, 2003, Constellation returned to San Diego after completing her 21st and final deployment to the Western Pacific. During deployment, she took part in Operation Iraqi Freedom, a mission objective on the war on Iraq.
After her impressive 41 year service life, "Connie" was decommissioned pier side at Naval Air Station North Island in San Diego, California on August 7, 2003. In the middle of September 2003, Connie was towed to Puget Sound Naval Station for storage. Between August 2014 and January 2015, she was towed from Bremerton, WA to Brownsville, TX where she was dismantled.
USS Lawrence (DD-8) at Sea - HistoryCharles Lawrence was born in Portland, Oregon, on 29 December 1916 where he spent his childhood. he was a big baby, weighing over 9 pounds and the nurses called him "Buster," a nickname that stayed with him. he loved to play softball. As a young boy, he and his playmates spent time building forts with scrap lumber form a nearby mill. They had hills to coast on in the summer and sledding in the winter. he went to elementary school about 8 blocks from his home and then to Benson Polytechnic High School, where he majored in aviation mechanics, graduating in June 1935. This was in the middle of the Depression, so it was hard to find a job.
Charles wanted to join the Navy after graduating form high school, but every time he went for a physical, his blood pressure was too high. he later found out that his high blood pressure was the result of having to walk up eight flights of stairs to the Recruiting Office. He finally gave up on joining the Navy and applied and was accepted by the Army on 24 August, 1973. After recruit training he was sent to the Army Aviation Machinist School, graduating with high grades. he was then transferred to Luke Filed, Hawaii, and was later transferred to a B-18 squadron stationed at Hickam Field in Hawaii. he didn't want another tour of duty in Hawaii so when his tour was over, he was returned to the States and was discharged on October 11, 1939.
On 12 February 1940, he joined the Navy at San Francisco. he went through 'boot' camp at San Diego and was then sent to Aviation Machinist Mate School at North island in San Diego. After graduation, he was transferred to a PBY squadron at Naval Air Station, Pearl Harbor. In March 1941, his PBY-1 Squadron was transferred to the Naval Air Station, Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, the first PBY squadron to be located at this Naval Air Station. Later on, two more PBY Squadrons were sent to Kaneohe.
In November 1941, Charles Lawrence, along with others, flew their old PBY-1 planes from Kaneohe to San Diego to pick up new PBY-5 Flying Boats. Navy PBY-1 squadrons had never flown from Hawaii to the mainland before. It was an historic first flight and took approximately 20 hours to cross the pacific Ocean to the states. It was unheard of in those days to have such young Naval personnel occupy such important positions on a Flying Boat.
On 7 November 1941, the new PBY Flying Boats returned to Kaneohe Naval Air Station and 30 days later, the Japanese attacked and destroyed all the new planes. Kaneohe Naval Air Station was attacked before Pearl Harbor because it was first in the lines of flight by the Japanese forces.
[See the Action Report of the attack filed by Patrol Squadron 12.]
Charles Lawrence was in charge of an anti-aircraft battery as his battle station during the attack. He was wounded twice but continued to give directions and encouragement to his crew until he was struck down. He was one of the first casualties, if not the first, of World War II.
Charles Lawrence was described by his shipmates as steady, truthful, and dedicated and was looked upon as a leader. He was a few years older than the rest of the crew and was nicknamed "Pop." Said one shipmate, "You couldn't ask for a nicer person or a friend." His hobbies were swimming and baseball. He was once hit in the face with a ball and his jaws were almost closed for six weeks, living on ally liquids during that time. he was never married. His parents died in 1945 and 1947. He had a sister who till lives in Oregon . He had no brothers. Charles Lawrence was one of 19 sailors who defended, with their lives, the U.S. Naval Air Station, Kaneohe Bay against enemy attack on 7 December 1941. He was awarded the Navy Department Commendation Medal, citing his bravery and devotion to duty under attack.
USS Charles Lawrence (DE-53/APD-37)
When USS Charles Lawrence was commissioned, Lieutenant Commander Leon S. Kintberger, USN, assumed command as her first Commanding Officer, and the ship spent several weeks at the Boston Navy Yard for fitting out. After her fitting out period, she sailed for Bermuda on her shakedown cruise. After a three-week shakedown, which consisted of drills and exercises of all kinds, such as firing all guns and torpedoes, laying smoke screen, fueling at sea, antisubmarine warfare drills, antiaircraft gunnery practice and station keeping, USS Charles Lawrence headed back for the east coast to await assignment to the fleet.
On 1 August 1943, USS Charles Lawrence was in Norfolk Navy Shipyard awaiting her first convoy, which was due to sail in about two weeks. In the meantime, she was available for general duty and she soon got it. She received orders to proceed in company with USS Hopping and search for an enemy submarine which had been reported off the coast. After searching for two days, a suspicious radar contact was made. The USS Charles Lawrence immediately went to General Quarters, closed the target, and illuminated it with starshells and searchlights. The target was a large German submarine, estimated at over 1600 tons, which submerged immediately. Sound contact was made and an attack followed. However, no results were observed and the submarine slipped away into the darkness and depths without further contact being made.
Assigned first to escort central Atlantic convoys of tankers between Norfolk and Casablanca, USS Charles Lawrence made one such voyage. On 16 August 1943, she sailed from Norfolk with her first convoy, proceeding to Casablanca. It was a quiet orderly convoy, both over and back, with no enemy contacts.
Upon returning from Casablanca, Lieutenant Francis Kerning, USNR, relieved lieutenant Commander Kintberger, USN, as Commanding Officer of USS Charles Lawrence in August 1943.
USS Charles Lawrence and five sister destroyer escorts (USS Griffin (DE-54), USS Donnel (DE-56), USS Sims (DE-154), USS Hopping (DE-155) and USS Reeves (DE-156) comprised Escort Division SIX, with USS Charles Lawrence serving as flagship. Escort Division SIX was transferred to the high-speed tanker convoys formed at New York from t ships which had sailed independently up the East Coast. Between 13 October 1943 and 23 September 1944, Escort Division SIX in USS Charles Lawrence escorted eight (8) such convoys to Northern Ireland, returning with the tankers in ballast to New York. This flow of the fuel of war was so safely guarded by this escort group that only one tanker and one escort were lost in the sixteen (16) crossings of the Atlantic.
In February 1944, Lieutenant George r. Seidlitz, USNR, assumed command of the USS Charles Lawrence, relieving Lieutenant Francis Kernan, USNR.
The Division was escorting a convoy to the United States about three days out of Londonderry, Northern Ireland in march 1944, when USS Daniel T. Griffin reported a sound contact and commenced dropping depth charges. About the same time as the depth charges exploded, a torpedo struck the tanker Seakay which had a cargo of planes and fuel oil and burst into flames. USS Griffin pursued its attack on the submarine. The tanker sank very slowly and USS Reeves dropped back and picked up all 86 men of the tanker's crew with but only one casualty. USS Griffin made several depth charge attacks on the submarine but got no positive evidence of having sunk the U-boat. [Saturday, 18 March 1944: U.S. tanker Seakay, in Avonmouth, England-bound convoy CU 17, is torpedoed by German submarine U-311 at 51°10'N, 20°20'W, and abandoned. One Armed Guard sailor perishes in the abandonment destroyer escort Reeves (DE-156) rescues survivors. Escort ships scuttle the irreparably damaged tanker with shells and depth charges.]
One the next crossing, in approximately the same general location, the Division and convoy came under submarine attack again. USS Donnel picked up a sound contact and started her attack on the U-boat. At 0955 on 3 May 1943, she took an acoustic torpedo hit in the stern however, she remained afloat. [Wednesday, 3 May 1944: Destroyer escort Donnel (DE-56) is damaged by German submarine U-765, 450 miles southwest of Cape Clear, Ireland.] After much time, difficulty, and danger, she was towed into Londonderry. Casualties among the USS Donnel consisted of five known dead, 31 missing and 29 wounded. The Donnel was later reclassified as IX-182 and was towed across the channel where she was used to provide electric power for the city of Cherbourg during critical weeks during and after the Normandy invasion.
The USS Charles Lawrence had to maintain a high standard of seamanship to keep sailing the seas in all kinds of weather. During the Winter of 1943-1944, she ran into some bad weather in the North Atlantic, the worst being what became known as the "Christmas Hurricane." For about 20 hours, the ships in the convoy , as well as the escorts, were virtually hove-to. The seas were so high that the ships could make no headway against them, and the convoy became wildly scattered. There were reports of 'green' water coming in over the flying bridge. All ships came through safely and with only minor damage, and by noon the next day, the convoy had reformed and was on its way again.
USS Charles Lawrence arrived in New York with her last convoy in September 1944, and on 23 October 1944, entered the Sullivan Drydock and Repair Corporation facility in Brooklyn, NY, for conversion from a Destroyer Escort (DE) to a High-Speed Transport (APD). The conversion was completed in January 1945, and she was again ready for another short shakedown cruise and the long journey to join the Pacific Fleet. She left Norfolk on 27 January 1945, and arrived at Cristobal, Canal Zone on the morning of 2 February. By midafternoon she was underway through the Panama Canal and up the West Coast to San Diego. From San Diego, she sailed to Pearl Harbor for a short stay.
On 5 march 1945, she left Pearl Harbor enroute to the Solomon islands by way of Funafuti, Ellice Islands. When she arrived at Guadalcanal, the staging area for the coming Okinawa invasion, she was assigned to Commander Amphibious Group FOUR. This group had left a couple of days before she arrived, so she was routed onward to Ulithi, Caroline Islands. At Ulithi, logistics were completed and she sailed for Okinawa on 27 March 1945, as one of the eight escorts for Task Group 51.11, which consisted of 20 troop transports.
"Love Day" was set at 0830 on 1 April 1945 at Okinawa. After the initial landings, USS Charles Lawrence was assigned a station in the anti-submarine screen which was a semicircle of destroyers, destroyer escorts, and high-speed transports. They formed around Hagushi Beach where the landings were made.
Patrolling was her duty for the next three months, steaming back and forth in a 7000-yard station, searching for submarines and looking for suicide boats and suicide planes. Occasionally she would be relived from the screen to escort task groups that were returning to Ulithi or Guam, but she always returned to Okinawa.
During the first few weeks after the invasion of Okinawa, there were a few attacks by Kamikaze planes, but after that, suicide planes came in force. usually from 100 to 300 planes would come in just before sunrise and again at night just prior to sunset. This routine kept up until after Okinawa was secured. Several escorts on the perimeter patrols were hit by the Kamikazes. Firing often against these desperate Kamikazes, USS Charles Lawrence escaped injury. She did not get credit for any planes shot down, however, she came under attack several times. On one occasion, a Kamikaze plane made two attacks one evening, missing on the first run and crashing close aboard on the second attempt.
In early July 1944, USS Charles Lawrence was released and ordered into Leyte Gulf for a tender availability and overhaul. During this availability period, Lieutenant Commander Seidlitz was relieved as Commanding Officer on 21 July 1945 by Lieutenant Commander D.F. Larkin, Jr., USNR.
She was ready for sea and at anchor in Leyte, awaiting her next assignment, when the Japanese capitulated. her last major job was as escort with the USS Griffin to cover the landing of the Kure Occupation Force in the Japanese Inland Sea. She then acted as transport between the Philippines and Manus. She returned to San Diego on 16 December 1945, and through the Panama Canal to Norfolk on 30 December. On 21 June 19456, she was decommissioned, in reserve at Green Cove Springs, Florida.
USS Charles Lawrence earned one Battle Star in the Asiatic-Pacific Area for participating in the Assault and Occupation of Okinawa Gunto from 1 April 1945 to 30 June 1945. She also earned the Navy Occupation Service Medal for the period 25 September to 12 October 1945.
Why The Destroyer USS Paul Hamilton Came Home Flying A Crescent Moon Flag And A Long Pennant
Commander, U.S. 3rd Fleet&mdashPublic Domain
Last month, the U.S. Navy's Arleigh Burke class destroyer USS Kidd returned to its homeport flying a huge Jolly Roger pirate flag, something the ship is uniquely authorized to do for reasons you can read about in this subsequent War Zone piece. Earlier this week, another destroyer in this class, the USS Paul Hamilton, finished up its latest deployment flying a large blue flag with a crescent moon-shaped symbol with the word "LIBERTY" written inside, as well as a very long pennant with a stars-and-stripes motif, both of which have their own fascinating backstories.
Paul Hamilton, also known by its hull number DDG-60, returned to Naval Base San Diego in California on Oct. 13, 2020. The ship had left its homeport in January and spent some nine months at sea, primarily in the Middle East and Western Pacific, traveling approximately 54,422 nautical miles, in total, according to the Navy.
Secretary of the Navy Edward Hidalgo modified the Navy’s drinking rules to allow two beers to sailors who had been at sea for more than 45 days.
There are exceptions to the rule. Ships keep a small stock of alcohol for so-called medicinal purposes such as when a crewmember is shaken by an accident or a pilot is suffering from the pressures of a demanding mission. The alcohol can only be issued on the authority of the medicinal officer or captain of the ship. During World War II, some submarine commanders, such as Adm. Eugene Fluckey of the USS Barb tried to relieve the stress of living in a contained and dangerous environment by providing his crew with beer after an enemy ship was sunk. In 1980, Secretary of the Navy Edward Hidalgo decided to allow crew members of ships that had been out to sea for an extended period to each have two beers (later set to 45 continuous days). According to letter by Capt. Lawrence B. Brennan, published in Naval History magazine, the surprise announcement to again permit limited beer on board was prompted by Hidalgo’s experience on USS Enterprise during World War II when a kamikaze attack plane crashed though an elevator and destroyed the cargo of beer.