26 November 1941

26 November 1941


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26 November 1941

Pacific

The Japanese carrier fleet sails, heading towards Pearl Harbor

The United States demands that Japan withdraws from China

North Africa

Major-General Ritchie takes command of the 8th Army

Tobruk garrison links up with the main army close to Sidi Rezegh

Middle East

Lebanon declared to be independent



FDR establishes modern Thanksgiving holiday

President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a bill officially establishing the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day.

The tradition of celebrating the holiday on Thursday dates back to the early history of the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies, when post-harvest holidays were celebrated on the weekday regularly set aside as “Lecture Day,” a midweek church meeting where topical sermons were presented. A famous Thanksgiving observance occurred in the autumn of 1621, when Plymouth governor William Bradford invited local members of the Wampanoag tribe to join the Pilgrims in a festival held in gratitude for the bounty of the season.

Thanksgiving became an annual custom throughout New England in the 17th century, and in 1777 the Continental Congress declared the first national American Thanksgiving following the Patriot victory at Saratoga. In 1789, President George Washington became the first president to proclaim a Thanksgiving holiday, when, at the request of Congress, he proclaimed November 26, a Thursday, as a day of national thanksgiving for the U.S. Constitution. However, it was not until 1863, when President Abraham Lincoln declared Thanksgiving to officially fall on the last Thursday of November, that the modern holiday was celebrated nationally.

With a few deviations, Lincoln’s precedent was followed annually by every subsequent president—until 1939. In 1939, Franklin D. Roosevelt departed from tradition by declaring November 23, the next to last Thursday that year, as Thanksgiving Day. Considerable controversy surrounded this deviation, and some Americans refused to honor Roosevelt’s declaration. For the next two years, Roosevelt repeated the unpopular proclamation, but on November 26, 1941, he admitted his mistake and signed a bill into law officially making the fourth Thursday in November the national holiday of Thanksgiving Day.


November 26, 1941 Franksgiving

The next two years, thirty-two states and the District of Columbia celebrated what came to be called “Franksgiving” on the third Thursday of the month, while the remainder observed a more traditional “Republican Thanksgiving”, on the last. FDR quipped “Two years ago, or three years ago, I discovered I was particularly fond of turkey! So we started two Thanksgivings. I don’t know how many we ought to have next year. I’m open to suggestion.”

In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln declared a general day of Thanksgiving to be observed on the last Thursday of November. The date seemed to work out OK and the tradition stuck, until 1939.

Roughly two in seven Novembers contain five Thursdays, and that year was one.

In those days, it was considered poor form for retailers to put up Christmas displays or run Christmas sales, before Thanksgiving. Lew Hahn, General Manager of the Retail Dry Goods Association, was afraid that extra week was going to cut into Christmas sales.

Ten years into the Great Depression with unemployment standing at 17.2%, the Federal government was afraid of the same thing. Never afraid to tinker with precedent, President Franklin Roosevelt decided to deviate from the customary last Thursday, and declared the fourth Thursday, November 23, to be a national day of prayer and thanksgiving.

Opposition to the plan was quick in forming. Alf Landon, Roosevelt’s Republican challenger in the earlier election, complained of Roosevelt’s impulsiveness, and the confusion resulting from it. “more time should have been taken working it out” Landon complained, “instead of springing it upon an unprepared country with the omnipotence of a Hitler.”

In Plymouth Massachusetts, home of the first Thanksgiving, Chairman of the Board of Selectmen James Frasier, “heartily disapproved”. The headline from the New York Times, trumpeted “Roosevelt to Move Thanksgiving: Retailers for It, Plymouth Is Not.”

The short-notice change in holiday schedule disrupted the holiday plans of millions of Americans, to say nothing of traditional high school and college Thanksgiving day football rivalries, across the nation.

Unsurprisingly, support for Roosevelt’s plan split across ideological lines. A late 1939 Gallup poll reported Democrats favoring the change 52% to 48%, with Republicans opposing it 79% to 21%.

Such proclamations represent little more than the “’moral authority” of the Presidency, and states are free to do as they pleased. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia observed Thanksgiving day on the non-traditional date, and twenty-two kept Thanksgiving on the 27 th . Colorado, Mississippi and Texas, did both.

The next two years, thirty-two states and the District of Columbia celebrated what came to be called “Franksgiving” on the third Thursday of the month, while the remainder observed a more traditional “Republican Thanksgiving”, on the last. FDR quipped “Two years ago, or three years ago, I discovered I was particularly fond of turkey! So we started two Thanksgivings. I don’t know how many we ought to have next year. I’m open to suggestion.”

In 1941, a Commerce Department survey demonstrated little difference in Christmas sales between those states observing Franksgiving, and those observing the more traditional date. A joint resolution of Congress declared the fourth Thursday beginning the following year to be a national day of Thanksgiving, President Roosevelt signing the measure into law November 26.

Interestingly, the phrase “Thanksgiving Day” had been used only once in the 20 th century prior to the 1941 resolution, that in President Calvin Coolidge’s first of six such proclamations.

Most state legislatures followed suit with the Federal fourth-Thursday approach, but not all. In 1945, the next year with five Thursdays in November, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Nebraska, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia reverted to the last Thursday. Texas would hold out the longest, celebrating its fifth-Thursday Thanksgiving for the last time in 1956.

To this day, the years 1939, ’40 and ’41 remain the only outliers, outside the fourth-Thursday tradition.

Popular comedians of the day got a lot of laughs out of it, including Burns & Allen and Jack Benny.

One 1940 Warner Brothers cartoon shows two Thanksgivings, one “for Democrats” and one a week later “for Republicans.”

The Three Stooges short film “No Census, No Feeling” of the same year, has Moe questioning Curly, why he put the fourth of July in October. Larry: Where is everybody? Curly: Maybe it’s the Fourth of July. Moe: The Fourth of July in October? Curly: You never can tell… Look what they did to Thanksgiving!

Joe Toye, the “Easy Company” character in the 2001 HBO miniseries “A Band of Brothers”, may have had the last word on Franksgiving. Explaining his plan to get the war over quickly, the paratrooper quips “Hitler gets one of these [knives] right across the windpipe, Roosevelt changes Thanksgiving to Joe Toye Day, [and] pays me ten grand a year for the rest of my f*****g life.”


Historical Events on November 26

    Asturian queen Adosinda was put in the monastery of San Juan de Pravia, where she lived out the rest of her life, to prevent her kin from retaking the throne from Mauregatus.

Event of Interest

1476 Vlad III Dracula defeats Basarab Laiota with the help of Stephen the Great and Stephen V Bathory and becomes the ruler of Wallachia for the third time.

    Pope Clemens VII signs treaty with emperor Karel I French Huguenots & Roman Catholics sign peace treaty Pope Innocent X condemns Peace of Westphalia Duke of Savoye signs on to League of Augsburg

Declaration of War

1688 French King Louis XIV declares war on Netherlands

    King James II escapes back to London 1st lion exhibited in America in Boston French & Beiers army occupies Prague France bans Jesuit enorde

Event of Interest

1778 British explorer Captain James Cook is the first European to visit Maui in the Sandwich Islands (now Hawaii)

Event of Interest

1791 1st US cabinet meeting, held at George Washington's home in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of War Henry Knox, and Attorney General Edmund Randolph attend.

Gregory Conquers Julius Caesar

1793 Republican calendar replaces Gregorian calendar in France

    Official opening of Thomas Telford's Pontcysyllte Aqueduct, carrying the Llangollen canal 126 feet above the River Dee 1st college fraternity founded (Kappa Alpha (Union College, NY)) 1st streetcar railway in America starts operating in New York City with 12 cent fare HMS Beagle leaves Tahiti for New Zealand 1st date in James Clavell's novel Tai-Pan The University of Notre Dame is founded Alfred de Mussets "Un Caprice" premieres in Paris

Historic Publication

1859 Last weekly installment of Charles Dickens' "A Tale Of Two Cities" is published in literary periodical "All the Year Round"

    West Virginia created as a result of dispute over slavery with Virginia -Dec 2] Mine Run campaign, VA Confederate troops vacate Sandersville Georgia Skirmish at Sylvan Brutal/Waynesboro, Georgia

Historic Publication

1865 "Alice in Wonderland" by Lewis Carroll is published in America

    Battle of Papudo: The Spanish navy engages a combined Peruvian-Chilean fleet north of Valparaiso, Chile Refrigerated railroad car patented by JB Sutherland of Detroit 1st baseball game played in enclosed field in San Francisco, at 25th & Folsom King Lafia "Absalamu" of Nikki signs accord with France Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association forms

Event of Interest

1916 Addressing the Chamber of Commerce in Cincinnati, US President Woodrow Wilson declares that 'The business of neutrality is over. The nature of modern war leaves no state untouched'

    NHL forms with Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Maroons, Toronto Arenas, Ottawa Senators & Quebec Bulldogs National Hockey Association disbands The new government of Russia offers an armistice to Germany and Austria-Hungary The Podgorica Assembly votes for "union of the people", declaring assimilation into the Kingdom of Serbia

Event of Interest

1922 English archaeologist Howard Carter opens Tutankhamun's virtually intact tomb in Egypt

    1st successful Technicolor movie (The Toll of the Sea), premieres at the Rialto Theatre in NYC Mongolian People's Republic proclaimed Netherlands & Germany sign trade agreement

Event of Interest

1941 Amateur tennis champ Bobby Riggs turns pro

    General Alan Cunningham relieved of command of British 8th Army in North Africa British troops conquer Belhamed, Sidi Rezegh & El Duda

Attack on Pearl Harbor

1941 Japanese naval carrier force left its base & moves east toward Pearl Harbor

Film Premier

1942 "Casablanca" directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman premieres at Hollywood Theater, NYC (Academy Awards Best Picture 1943)

Film Release

1943 Last Judy Garland-Mickey Rooney movie "Girl Crazy" released

Event of Interest

1944 Himmler orders destruction of Auschwitz & Birkenau crematoria

Music Recording

1945 Charlie "Bird" Parker leads recording session for the Savoy label marketed as the "greatest Jazz session ever" with Dizzy Gillespie and Miles Davis

Film Release

1945 "Brief Encounter", based on Noël Coward's one-act play "Still Life", directed by David Lean and starring Celia Johnson and Trevor Howard is released

Event of Interest

1948 1st polaroid camera sold for $89.75 in Boston at the Jordan Marsh department store. The Land Camera model 95 becomes prototype for all Polaroid Land cameras for next 15 years


Today in History November 26 1941

Today in History November 26 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a bill officially establishing the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day.

The tradition of celebrating the holiday on Thursday dates back to the early history of the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies, when post-harvest holidays were celebrated on the weekday regularly set aside as “Lecture Day,” a midweek church meeting where topical sermons were presented. A famous Thanksgiving observance occurred in the autumn of 1621, when Plymouth governor William Bradford invited local Indians to join the Pilgrims in a three-day festival held in gratitude for the bounty of the season.

Thanksgiving became an annual custom throughout New England in the 17th century, and in 1777 the Continental Congress declared the first national American Thanksgiving following the Patriot victory at Saratoga. In 1789, President George Washington became the first president to proclaim a Thanksgiving holiday, when, at the request of Congress, he proclaimed November 26, a Tuesday, as a day of national thanksgiving for the U.S. Constitution. However, it was not until 1863, when President Abraham Lincoln declared Thanksgiving to fall on the last Thursday of November, that the modern holiday was celebrated nationally.

With a few deviations, Lincoln’s precedent was followed annually by every subsequent president–until 1939. In 1939, Franklin D. Roosevelt departed from tradition by declaring November 23, the next to last Thursday that year, as Thanksgiving Day. Considerable controversy surrounded this deviation, and some Americans refused to honor Roosevelt’s declaration. For the next two years, Roosevelt repeated the unpopular proclamation, but on November 26, 1941, he admitted his mistake and signed a bill into law officially making thefourth Thursday in November the national holiday of Thanksgiving Day.


WWII Multimedia Timeline: 1939-1941

[This document was handed by Secretary of State Cordell Hull to Ambassador Nomura on November 26, 1941. It consisted of two parts: an oral statement, and an outline of a proposed basis for agreement between the United States and Japan]

Oral Statement
"Strictly confidential
"November 26, 1941

The representatives of the Government of the United States and of the Government of Japan have been carrying on during the past several months informal and exploratory conversations for the purpose of arriving at a settlement if possible of questions relating to the entire Pacific area based upon the principles of peace, law and order and fair dealing among nations. These principles include the principle of inviolability of territorial integrity and sovereignty of each and all nations the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries the principle of equality, including equality of commercial opportunity and treatment and the principle of reliance upon international cooperation and conciliation for the prevention and pacific settlement of controversies and for improvement of international conditions by peaceful methods and processes.

It is believed that in our discussions some progress has been made in reference to the general principles which constitute the basis of a peaceful settlement covering the entire Pacific area. Recently the Japanese Ambassador has stated that the Japanese Government is desirous of continuing the conversations directed toward a comprehensive and peaceful settlement of the Pacific area that it would be helpful toward creating an atmosphere favorable to the successful outcome of the conversations if a temporary modus vivendi could be agreed upon to be in effect while the conversations looking to peaceful settlement in the Pacific were continuing. On November 20 the Japanese Ambassador communicated to the Secretary of State proposals in regard to temporary measure to be taken respectively by the Government of Japan and by the Government of the United States, which measures are understood to have been designed to accomplish the purposes above indicated.

The Government of the United States most earnestly desires to contribute to the promotion and maintenance of peace and stability in the Pacific area, and to afford every opportunity for the continuance of discussion with the Japanese Government directed toward working out a broad-gauge program of peace throughout the Pacific area. The proposals which were presented by the Japanese Ambassador on November 20 contain some features which, in the opinion of this Government, conflict with the fundamental principles which form a part of the general settlement under consideration and to which each Government has declared that it is committed. The Government of the United States believes that the adoption of such proposals would not be likely to contribute to the ultimate objectives of ensuring peace under law, order and justice in the Pacific area, and it suggests that further effort be made to resolve our divergences of view in regard to the practical application of the fundamental principles already mentioned.

With this object in view the Government of the United States offers for the consideration of the Japanese Government a plan of a broad but simple settlement covering the entire Pacific area as one practical exemplification of a program which this Government envisages as something to be worked out during our further conversations.

The plan therein suggested represents an effort to bridge the gap between our draft of June 21, 1941 and the Japanese draft of September 25 by making a new approach to the essential problems underlying a comprehensive Pacific settlement. This plan contains provisions dealing with the practical application of the fundamental principles which we have agreed in our conversations constitute the only sound basis for worthwhile international relations. We hope that in this way progress toward reaching a meeting of minds between our two Governments may be expedited." "Strictly confidential, tentative and without commitment."


November 26, 1941.
Outline of Proposed Basis for Agreement Between the United States and Japan

Section I "Draft Mutual Declaration of Policy

The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan both being solicitous for the peace of the Pacific affirm that their national policies are directed toward lasting and extensive peace throughout the Pacific area, that they have no territorial designs in that area, that they have no intention of threatening other countries or of using military force aggressively against any neighboring nation, and that, accordingly, in their national policies they will actively support and give practical application to the following fundamental principles upon which their relations with each other and with all other governments are based:

(1) The principle of inviolability of territorial integrity and sovereignty of each and all nations.

(2) The principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries.

(3) The principle of equality, including equality of commercial opportunity and treatment.

(4) The principle of reliance upon international cooperation and conciliation for the prevention and pacific settlement of controversies and for improvement of international conditions by peaceful methods and processes.

The Government of Japan and the Government of the United States have agreed that toward eliminating chronic political instability, preventing recurrent economic collapse, and providing a basis for peace, they will actively support and practically apply the following principles in their economic relations with each other and with other nations and peoples:

(1) The principle of non-discrimination in international commercial relations.

(2) The principle of international economic cooperation and abolition of extreme nationalism as expressed in excessive trade restrictions.

(3) The principle of non-discriminatory access by all nations to raw material supplies.

(4) The principle of full protection of the interests of consuming countries and populations as regards the operation of international commodity agreements.

(5) The principle of establishment of such institutions and arrangements of international finance as may lend aid to the essential enterprises and the continuous development of all countries and may permit payments through processes of trade consonant with the welfare of all countries.

Steps To Be Taken by the Government of the United States and by the Government of Japan

The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan propose to take steps as follows:

1. The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan will endeavor to conclude a multilateral non-aggression pact among the British Empire, China, Japan, the Netherlands, the Soviet Union, Thailand and the United States.

2. Both Governments will endeavor to conclude among the American, British, Chinese, Japanese, the Netherland and Thai Governments would pledge itself to respect the territorial integrity of French Indochina and, in the event that there should develop a threat to the territorial integrity of Indochina, to enter into immediate consultation with a view to taking such measures as may be deemed necessary and advisable to meet the threat in question. Such agreement would provide also that each of the Governments party to the agreement would not seek or accept preferential treatment in its trade or economic relations with Indochina and would use its influence to obtain for each of the signatories equality of treatment in trade and commerce with French Indochina.

3. The Government of Japan will withdraw all military, naval, air and police forces from China and from Indochina.

4. The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan will not support - militarily, politically, economically - any government or regime in China other than the National Government of the Republic of China with capital temporarily at Chungking.

5. Both Governments will endeavor to obtain the agreement of the British and other governments to give up extraterritorial rights in China, including right in international settlements and in concessions and under the Boxer Protocol of 1901.

6. The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan will enter into negotiations for the conclusion between the United States and Japan of a trade agreement, based upon reciprocal most favored-nation treatment and reduction of trade barriers by both countries, including an undertaking by the United States to bind raw silk on the free list.

7. The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan will, respectively, remove the freezing restrictions on Japanese funds in the United States and on American funds in Japan.

8. Both Governments will agree upon a plan for the stabilization of the dollar-yen rate, with the allocation of funds adequate for this purpose, half to be supplied by Japan and half by the United States.

9. Both Governments will agree that no agreement which either has concluded with any third power or powers shall be interpreted by it in such a way as to conflict with the fundamental purpose of this agreement, the establishment and preservation of peace throughout the Pacific area.

10. Both Governments will use their influence to cause other governments to adhere to and to give practical application to the basic political and economic principles set forth in this agreement.


Today In Naval History: 26th November - Destroyers-for-Bases, Operation Collar Continues, The Kido Butai Moves

A batch of four obsolete destroyers from the US 72nd Destroyer Division and six recommissioned destroyers from naval reserves are transferred to Royal Navy Service as part of the ⟞stroyers-for-Bases' agreement between the UK and US where the US would pass fifty destroyers from it's naval reserve to Royal Navy Service in return for the land in British possessions beind ceded to the US for the establishment of naval or air bases with rent-free, 99-year leases.

The general seaworthiness of the American ships offered is called into question when they are discovered to be rife with poor maintenance and severe flaws. The Admiralty is aghast.

"I thought they were the worst destroyers I had ever seen, poor seaboats with apalling armament and accomodation. The price paid for them was scandalous."

Admiral of the Fleet Lord Tovey

Nevertheless, such is the pressing need of the British that the destroyers they can make seaworthy are immediately pressed into service as the Town-class Destroyer. They are resoundingly hated by their crews.

"A contemporary naval opinion. would be that although the U.S. vessels were tactically of the lowest order. their mere presence thrashing around in the water around the convoy afforded some sort of deterrent against the U-Boat."

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Philip Vian

Writers Note: This wasn't a con job. Such was the UK's need at the time, that Churchill had actually originally initiated the request for transfer of unused naval assets likening "the worth of every destroyer you can spare to us is measured in rubies". Really crappy rubies. Ironically, the US would get very little use out of the basing rights they had negotiated in British territory - The Post-War formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization allowed US access to military installations across Europe, while the break-up of the British Empire forced the US to subsequently renegotiate terms with the Commonwealth Countries.

Today: 26th November 1940 (Tuesday) - Operation Collar Diversions

Swordfish bombers from 815 and 819 Squadron stage from HMS Illustrious to launch an attack against the Italian seaplane base at Port Laki, Leros at 0600 hrs. The purpose of the raid is to distract Italian forces from Convoy ME4 en route to Malta from Gibraltar. The raid is successful but one Swordfish is shot down.

The Italians are unconvinced by the feint and launch a large fleet westward to intercept the convoy (Battleships Vittorio Veneto and Giulio Cesare, Heavy Cruisers Bolzano, Fiume, Goriza, Pola, Trieste and Trento and Destroyers Ascari, Carabiniere, Lanciere, Alfredo Oriani, Vittorio Alfieri, Giosué Carducci, Vincenzo Gioberti, Alpino, Bersagliere, Fuciliere, Granatiere, Dardo, Freccia and Saetta).

Writers Note: Someone once told me you can take an Italian out of a fight, but you can't take the fight out of an Italian.

Today: 26th November 1941 (Wednesday) - The Kido Butai Moves

Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo departs Hitokappu Bay in the Kurile Islands aboard his flagship, the Akagi. Deploying with him is the Kido Butai, Japan's elite carrier strike force. He has been informed that only if "negotiations with the United States reach a successful conclusion, the task force will immediately put about and return to the homeland." The stage is now set for the "Hawaii Operation".

In the US, Secretary of State Cordell Hull offers a counter-proposal to the Japanese demands, requiring Japan to recognize Chiang Kai-shek, withdraw from both China and French Indochina and to agree to a multinational non-aggression pact with full expectation that the Japanese were not going to entertain this demand. The Japanese Ambassador Corp, unaware that wheels are already turning, requests for two weeks to study the proposals.

At Pearl Harbor, an intelligence team led by Joseph Rochefort sends a report for his superiors that his cryptanalytic team had detected Japanese fleet movements and that the Japanese warships were staging for actions in the South Pacific. Whether in hubris or ignorance, he noted his sentiment that while war was about to break out in Asia, Pearl Harbor was safe from Japanese attacks for the time being.


The Bonham Herald (Bonham, Tex.), Vol. 25, No. 26, Ed. 1 Thursday, November 6, 1941

Semi-weekly newspaper from Bonham, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

Physical Description

six pages : ill. page 23 x 16 in. Scanned from physical pages.

Creation Information

Context

This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Fannin County Area Newspaper Collection and was provided by the Bonham Public Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 28 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.

Editor

Audiences

Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

Provided By

Bonham Public Library

The evolution of the Bonham Public Library began in 1901, when a public library was established as an outgrowth of a circulating library sponsored by the Current Literature Club. One hundred and fifteen years later the Library strives to meet the informational, educational, cultural and recreational needs of the Bonham community.


The Soviets’ FIRST major WWII victory over the Nazis (PHOTOS)

As we know, the result of the Red Army&rsquos counterattack outside Moscow in winter 1941-1942, the German &lsquoOperation Typhoon&rsquo &mdash aimed at seizing the Russian capital &mdash fell through completely. As a result, the Wehrmacht was thrown back several hundred kilometers. However, despite widespread opinions to the contrary, this had not been the Third Reich&rsquos first major loss on the Eastern Front. A week before the Moscow turnaround, another major city was liberated: Rostov-on-Don.

The industrial center with a population of half a million people was also a critical railway and highway hub. Rostov was taken by General Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist&rsquos 1st Tank Army on November 21, 1941. Known in the USSR as &ldquothe jewel of the Don River&rdquo, Rostov was seen by the Germans as the &ldquogateway to the Caucasus&rdquo, in other words &mdash a direct path to the riches of the Soviet south&rsquos oil fields.

Having pushed back the defending 56th Army of General Fedor Remezov to the left shore of the Don, the Germans, drained from the heavy fighting, could not meaningfully develop a continued assault and opted to hold their positions. The period, known today as &ldquothe bloody week&rdquo, had begun for the city of Rostov. The &lsquoLeibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler&rsquo division executed more than 1,000 civilian prisoners - their bodies laying in heaps in the city&rsquos major squares and streets.

The photograph of 16-year-old Viktor Cherevichkin, shot for disobeying the occupants&rsquo order to destroy all the city&rsquos pigeons (for the purpose of preventing their use for communication purposes) is widely known in Russia. The boy had kept some of the birds alive for a whole week. The photo ended up being used as evidence during the Nuremberg trials.

The Red Army was not going to take the loss of Rostov sitting down. On November 27, three Soviet armies (the 37th, 9th and 56th) struck the city from separate directions, attempting to get the Germans in a bind. The infantry, traversing the thin ice of the Don, fought the enemy right there and then. The fighting often included hand to hand combat.

Adolph Hitler categorically forbade the commander of the Army Group South, Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, from leaving Rostov, however, the German commander ignored the order. Following several urban battles, the 1st German Army began to pull back to avoid defeat.

The Fuhrer then immediately swapped out Rundstedt for Field Marshal Walter von Reichenau &mdash who only continued the withdrawal. Having decided that his decision was made in haste, Hitler arrived at the South Army headquarters in Poltava (current central Ukraine), where, having surveyed the situation, he understood the error of his decision, personally apologizing to Rundstedt, who would later continue his service in occupied France.

Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt.

Having liberated Rostov-on-Don on November 29, the Red Army pushed the German forces back 60-70 kilometers, to the shores of the Mius River, where the Soviet onslaught finally stopped. For a long period, the Soviet-German front in the south was stabilised. The victory in Rostov did not only raise the spirits of Soviet soldiers and population, but also prevented Reichenau from relocating his reserve troops toward Moscow, where, on December 5, a large-scale counterattack was mounted. As one of the officers of the Wehrmacht later declared: &ldquoOur difficulties began in Rostov&hellip&rdquo

For the duration of the next several months, Rostov was a prefrontal city, sustaining frequent bombardment from the German Luftwaffe (air force). The city had dozens of hospitals, while the remaining facilities were used for the manufacturing of weapons, ammunition and equipment for the army.

Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

After the catastrophic failure of the Soviet attack under Kharkov (current northeast Ukraine) in May 1942, German forces had gained the ability to break through to the Don, Volga and the Caucasus region. On July 24 of the same year, Rostov-on-Don was again captured by the Wehrmacht. The Red Army managed to free the city only after the triumph under Stalingrad in February of 1943. This time, for good.

If using any of Russia Beyond's content, partly or in full, always provide an active hyperlink to the original material.


Thanksgiving Day 2018

Thursday, November 22 Thanksgiving Dinner by grayclee

Thanksgiving Day is an annual national holiday in the United States and Canada celebrating the harvest and other blessings of the past year. In the US Thanksgiving is celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November while in Canada nearly one month and a half earlier (second Monday of October). Thanksgiving has deep roots in religious tradition, but nowadays it is primarily celebrated as a secular holiday.

Thanksgiving tradition began in early XVII century, but the date and popularity varied between states. First nation-wide Thanksgiving was proclaimed on November 26, 1789 by George Washington. The contemporary date of fourth Thursday of November was set in 1941 by federal legislation.

Thanksgiving Celebration

Thanksgiving is a great time to be thankful and appreciate who you have and what you have. It is a time for families to meet, socialize and enjoy each other's company, sometimes the only opportunity in a year. Some prefer it to Christmas because of less emphasis on consumerism. Thanksgiving, for most, is also a start of a four day weekend which is great, too.

Thanksgiving Date

In 1863 President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed national Thanksgiving Day to be celebrated on the final Thursday of November. The rule of declaring the final Thursday of November as Thanksgiving Day was followed until 1939 [6]. In 1939 President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared the fourth (next-to-last) Thursday of November as Thanksgiving instead of the last, fifth one. The change of Thanksgiving's date was intended to extend the shopping season before Christmas and help bring the country out of The Great Depression. In the same manner, Thanksgiving in 1949 and 1941 was celebrated on third (next-to-last) Thursdays. In December 1941 Thanksgiving date was fixed as the fourth Thursday in November.

Interesting facts about Thanksgiving

  • Canadian Thanksgiving predates American Thanksgiving by 43 years. The first Thanksgiving in North America was held in 1578 in what is now Newfoundland, Canada. It was 43 before the first American Thanksgiving which happened in 1621 at the site of Plymouth Plantation, in Massachusetts [1].
  • Sarah Joseph Hale, who is the author of the nursery rhyme "Mary Had a Little Lamb" had contributed to the establishment of Thanksgiving as a national holiday. After 17 years of sending letters to President Lincoln, she had convinced him to support legislation establishing a national holiday of Thanksgiving in 1863. Before Thanksgiving, the only national holidays celebrated in the United States were Washington's Birthday (Presidents' Day) and Independence Day [5].
  • The TV dinner was invented in 1953 when Swanson had 260 tons of leftover turkey from Thanksgiving and no idea what to do with it. When asked, one of the employees said that they should package it in trays with sides and freeze [2].
  • There is a grocery in Paris named "Thanksgiving" that sells US food like Skippy peanut butter, Jello Instant Pudding, and Pop-Tarts to homesick ex-pats [3].
  • The day after Thanksgiving is the busiest day of the year for plumbers and septic companies who call it "Brown Friday" [4].
  • NASA engineers responsible for the Voyager program calculated trajectories for around 10,000 launch windows, from which they selected about 100 that met the mission objectives while minimizing planetary encounters taking place over the Thanksgiving or Christmas, allowing them to spend the holidays at home [7].
  • In 2013, Tony Rohr who was a manager at Pizza Hut franchise in Elkhart, Indiana, was fired for refusing to open on Thanksgiving Day so that his employees could spend the holiday with their families. He was offered the job back [8].

References

  1. Thanksgiving in America vs. Thanksgiving in Canada.
  2. Mariah Trimarchi, History of TV Dinners.
  3. Thanksgiving Grocery.
  4. Alex Moore, Brown Friday: yeah, it’s a thing thankfully not quite as nasty as it sounds
  5. Mary Had a Little Thanksgiving Obsession
  6. Thanksgiving 1939-1941, Wikipedia
  7. Porkchop plot, Wikipedia
  8. Faith Karimi, Pizza Hut boss who refused to force staff to work Thanksgiving says he's no hero, CNN

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