Medieval Chess Game

Medieval Chess Game


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


History

The origin of chess remains a matter of controversy. There is no credible evidence that chess existed in a form approaching the modern game before the 6th century ce . Game pieces found in Russia, China, India, Central Asia, Pakistan, and elsewhere that have been determined to be older than that are now regarded as coming from earlier distantly related board games, often involving dice and sometimes using playing boards of 100 or more squares.

One of those earlier games was a war game called chaturanga, a Sanskrit name for a battle formation mentioned in the Indian epic Mahabharata. Chaturanga was flourishing in northwestern India by the 7th century and is regarded as the earliest precursor of modern chess because it had two key features found in all later chess variants—different pieces had different powers (unlike checkers and go), and victory was based on one piece, the king of modern chess.

How chaturanga evolved is unclear. Some historians say chaturanga, perhaps played with dice on a 64-square board, gradually transformed into shatranj (or chatrang), a two-player game popular in northern India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and southern parts of Central Asia after 600 ce . Shatranj resembled chaturanga but added a new piece, a firzān (counselor), which had nothing to do with any troop formation. A game of shatranj could be won either by eliminating all an opponent’s pieces (baring the king) or by ensuring the capture of the king. The initial positions of the pawns and knights have not changed, but there were considerable regional and temporal variations for the other pieces.

The game spread to the east, north, and west, taking on sharply different characteristics. In the East, carried by Buddhist pilgrims, Silk Road traders, and others, it was transformed into a game with inscribed disks that were often placed on the intersection of the lines of the board rather than within the squares. About 750 ce chess reached China, and by the 11th century it had come to Japan and Korea. Chinese chess, the most popular version of the Eastern game, has 9 files and 10 ranks as well as a boundary—the river, between the 5th and 6th ranks—that limits access to the enemy camp and makes the game slower than its Western cousin.


J Courier Chess Recreated after 500 Years from Lucas van Leyden's Famous Painting of 1508 courier game - kurrier - renaissance - medieval - 8 by 12 - chess players - chess match - kurierschachspiel - ches s variants - ancient chess ____

In 1508, the Dutch painter Lucas van Leyden captured the drama of courier chess in his famous painting, known as “The Chess Match,” “The Chess Players,” or “The Chess Game”.

Now, after 500 years, the game in van Leyden’s picture has been analyzed and a faithful reproduction of the chess pieces and board have been created. Along with rules, first published in 1616 by the chess chronologist Gustav Selenus, the great game of Old Europe has been resurrected, and is ready to be played on into the 21st century!

In March, 2009, an article appeared in The Chess Collector — the official magazine of Chess Collector International, discussing courier chess in detail, and referring to this new re-creation. You can download the full illustrated article (in PDF form) by clicking this link.

The Courier Chess Reproduction


I already purchased one of your sets and I love it!
It exceeded my expectations. I hope you can continue
producing these sets, you're doing a valuable service
making this extinct game available again .

_______________________________________________ _ — Jeff S. of Everett, Washington, USA

The complete set of 48 pieces stand between ¾ inch and 2 ¼ inches tall (1.8

6 cm), the same size of those depicted in van Leyden’s painting.
Hand crafted in Riverside, California, made of solid resin, steel reinforced where needed and hand detailed to recreate the 500-year-old painting as closely as possible.
They are felted for comfort in play, and protection of the board.
This copyrighted reproduction is available only through CourierChess.com, selling as rickofricks on eBay.

Since the first production of in 2008, additional versions of the chessmen and board have been created. See the link below for currently available sets.

The board measures 19 ¾ by 13 ¾ inches ½ inch thick (35 by 50 by 1.25 cm), just like the one depicted in van Leyden’s painting.
The playing surface is a photographic image of a fine hand-painted German beech wood replica – likely materials for van Leyden’s original subject. It is reproduced here fixed to sturdy fiberwood board (MDF).

A quality print, the same size as the original painting, is included (details below).

Further productions are being developed. Check our listings for fine brass sets and hand made boards.

The illustrated rule booklet clearly lays out the original rules of play with diagrams, pictures and explanations.

To see this and further Courier Chess listings, select the link below.

Quality Print of Lucas van Leyden's Painting

Original size: The image is reproduced in the same size as the original painting:
10.6 x 13.8 inches (27 x 35 cm). Including the border, this print measures 12 x 18 inches (30.5 x 45.7 cm).

Restored: Scrapes and damages have been carefully removed, restoring this painting to its original beauty.

Fine quality: The image is finely detailed, printed with a glossy finish on a firm 10 point paper (about the thickness of a standard card stock).


The Courier Chess Reproduction


I already purchased one of your sets and I love it!
It exceeded my expectations. I hope you can continue
producing these sets, you're doing a valuable service
making this extinct game available again .

_______________________________________________ _ — Jeff S. of Everett, Washington, USA

The complete set of 48 pieces stand between ¾ inch and 2 ¼ inches tall (1.8

6 cm), the same size of those depicted in van Leyden’s painting.
Hand crafted in Riverside, California, made of solid resin, steel reinforced where needed and hand detailed to recreate the 500-year-old painting as closely as possible.
They are felted for comfort in play, and protection of the board.
This copyrighted reproduction is available only through CourierChess.com, selling as rickofricks on eBay.

Since the first production of in 2008, additional versions of the chessmen and board have been created. See the link below for currently available sets.

The board measures 19 ¾ by 13 ¾ inches ½ inch thick (35 by 50 by 1.25 cm), just like the one depicted in van Leyden’s painting.
The playing surface is a photographic image of a fine hand-painted German beech wood replica – likely materials for van Leyden’s original subject. It is reproduced here fixed to sturdy fiberwood board (MDF).

A quality print, the same size as the original painting, is included (details below).

Further productions are being developed. Check our listings for fine brass sets and hand made boards.

The illustrated rule booklet clearly lays out the original rules of play with diagrams, pictures and explanations.

To see this and further Courier Chess listings, select the link below.

Quality Print of Lucas van Leyden's Painting

Original size: The image is reproduced in the same size as the original painting:
10.6 x 13.8 inches (27 x 35 cm). Including the border, this print measures 12 x 18 inches (30.5 x 45.7 cm).

Restored: Scrapes and damages have been carefully removed, restoring this painting to its original beauty.

Fine quality: The image is finely detailed, printed with a glossy finish on a firm 10 point paper (about the thickness of a standard card stock).


Contents

Some of the most common pre-historic and ancient gaming tools were made of bone, especially from the Talus bone, these have been found worldwide and are the ancestors of knucklebones as well as dice games. [3] These bones were also sometimes used for oracular and divinatory functions. Other implements could have included shells, stones and sticks.

In ancient civilizations there was no clear distinction between the sacred and the profane. [4] According to Durkheim, games were founded in a religious setting and were a cornerstone of social bonding. [5]

Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean world Edit

A series of 49 small carved painted stones found at the 5,000-year-old Başur Höyük burial mound in southeast Turkey could represent the earliest gaming pieces ever found. Similar pieces have been found in Syria and Iraq and seem to point to board games having originated in the Fertile Crescent. [6] The earliest board games seem to have been a pastime for the elite and were sometimes given as diplomatic gifts. [7]

The Royal Game of Ur, or Game of Twenty Squares was played with a set of pawns on a richly decorated board and dates from about 3000 BCE. [8] It was a race game which employed a set of knucklebone dice. This game was also known and played in Egypt. A Babylonian treatise on the game written on clay tablet shows that the game had astronomical significance and that it could also be used to tell one's fortune. [9] The Ur game was also popular with the lower classes, as attested by a 2,700-year-old graffiti version of the game, scratched onto a gateway to a palace in Khorsabad. Similar games have been found in Iran, Crete, Cyprus, Sri Lanka and Syria. [9] Excavations at Shahr-e Sukhteh ("The Burnt City") in Iran have shown that the game also existed there around 3000 BCE. The artefacts include two dice and 60 checkers. [10] [11] Games such as Nard and the Roman game Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum (game of 12 points, also known as simply "dice", lat. "alea") may have developed from this Iranian game. The Byzantine game Tabula is a descendant of the game of twelve points.

Among the earliest examples of a board game is senet, a game found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burial sites in Egypt (circa 3500 BCE and 3100 BCE, respectively) and in hieroglyphs dating to around 3100 BCE. [12] The game was played by moving draughtsmen on a board of 30 squares arranged into three parallel rows of ten squares each. The players strategically moved their pieces based on the throw of sticks or bones. The goal was to reach the edge of the board first. Senet slowly evolved over time to reflect the religious beliefs of the Egyptians. The pieces represented human souls and their movement was based on the journey of the soul in the afterlife. Each square had a distinct religious significance, with the final square being associated with the union of the soul with the sun god Re-Horakhty. [12] Senet may have also been used in a ritual religious context.

The other example of a board game in ancient Egypt is “Hounds and Jackals”, also known as 58 holes. Hounds and Jackals appeared in Egypt, around 2000 BC and was mainly popular in the Middle Kingdom. [13] [14] The game was spread to Mesopotamia in the late 3rd millennium BC and was popular until the 1st millennium BC. [13] More than 68 gameboards of Hounds and Jackals have been discovered in the archaeological excavations in various territories, including Syria (Tell Ajlun, Ras el-Ain, Khafaje), Israel (Tel Beth Shean, Gezer), Iraq (Uruk, Nippur, Ur, Nineveh, Ashur, Babylon), Iran (Tappeh Sialk, Susa, Luristan), Turkey (Karalhuyuk, Kultepe, Acemhuyuk), Azerbaijan (Gobustan) and Egypt (Buhen, El-Lahun, Sedment). [15] [13] It was a race game for two players. The gaming board consisted of two sets of 29 holes. Ten small pegs with either jackal or dog heads were used for playing. [16] It's believed that the aim of the game was to begin at one point on the board and to reach with all figures at the other point on the board. [17]

In Ancient Greece and in the Roman Empire, popular games included ball games (Episkyros, Harpastum, Expulsim Ludere - a kind of handball), dice games (Tesserae), knucklebones, Bear games, Tic-tac-toe (Terni Lapilli), Nine men's morris (mola) and various types of board games similar to checkers. Both Plato and Homer mention board games called 'petteia' (games played with pessoi', i.e. 'pieces' or 'men'). According to Plato, they are all Egyptian in origin. The name 'petteia' seems to be a generic term for board game and refers to various games. One such game was called 'poleis' (city states) and was a game of battle on a checkered board. [18]

The Romans played a derivation of 'petteia' called 'latrunculi' or Ludus latrunculorum (the soldiers' game or the bandits' game). It is first mentioned by Varro (116–27 BCE) and alluded to by Martial and Ovid. This game was extremely popular and was spread throughout Europe by the Romans. Boards have been found as far as Roman Britain. It was a war game for two players and included moving around counters representing soldiers, the object being to get one of the adversary's pieces between two of one's own. [19]


Lewis in the 12th and 13th century

The pieces belong to the Scandinavian world, which at this time the Hebrides were part of. Around the time the hoard of chess pieces was buried, Lewis belonged to the kingdom of Norway and the culture was a mix of Gaelic and Scandinavian. Even after the Isles were ceded to Scotland in 1266, ties to Norway remained close – the bishops remained part of the bishopric of Trondheim. Other medieval chess pieces have also been found in the Western Isles, for instance, a walrus ivory knight from Skye.

We do not know who buried the pieces or why. They may have been the property of a merchant, sailing from Scandinavia to Scotland, Ireland or the Isle of Man to sell these highly-prized playing sets. But given that Lewis was home to powerful people with close ties to Norway at this time, the playing pieces may instead have been the treasured possession of a local leader, a prince or bishop perhaps.

Above: Chess piece made from walrus tusk representing two knights back to back, from Skye, mid-13th century. You can see this piece in the Kingdom of the Scots gallery, Level 0, National Museum of Scotland.


Medieval Chess Game - History

In Medieval Europe there are a lot of interesting chess pieces found. Often these pieces are made from very expensive materials. According to legend a precious chess set has been offered to Charlemagne in 801, for his crowning, by Harun-al-Rashid the Caliph of Baghdad. These figurine pieces are very nicely carved and made from Elephant Ivory.

A very nice set of figurine pieces were found on the Isle of Lewis and made from Walrus Tusk. These pieces give a nice picture of the Scandinavian life during the 12th century.

From arabic origin are abstract pieces, nice sets from rock crystal are found in Spain and Germany. A will from the 11th century of the Count of Urgel in Spain describes the offering of such a set to Saint-Gilles du Gars Abbey.

Chess Pieces were often made of precious materials and often ended as a gift to churches. The pieces were cut and ended for instance in a book cover. Sometimes they were also used in their original form. A nice example is the pulpit of Henry II in Aachen from about 1014.


Using dice with medieval chess

Another moral problem with chess during medieval times concerned the promotion of the pawn. Here the game piece not had its power changed, but its sex as well! Logically this transgenderism was frowned upon by the church.


The U.S. Chess Trust

Larry C Morris NYTimes at the Manhattan Chess Club in 1971, a crowd gathered around a speed match between Bobby Fischer (left) and Andrew Soltis

A Story of Chess (Especially in America)

Chess originated from the two-player Indian war game, Chatarung, which dates back to 600 A.D. In 1000 A.D, chess spread to Europe by Persian traders. The piece next to the king was called a ferz in Persian, defined as a male counselor to the king. The Europeans concocted a more romantic imagery, and changed the ferz to a queen.

At that time, the queen was the weakest piece on the board. The bishop was also a short-range piece. Because the queen and bishop were so weak, the game was much slower than it is today. It took a long time for a player to develop the pieces and even longer to checkmate the enemy king.

Medieval chessplayers often started out with midgame starting positions to speed up the game. Medieval chess was extremely popular. Sometimes, a game of chess was used an excuse to allow a young man and woman intimate time alone. At the end of the 15th century, the rules underwent a sudden sea change. The queen transformed from the weakest piece on the board to the strongest! At the same time, the bishop became the long-range piece that it is today. These changes quickened the games pace. The battle was intensified. Mistakes were harshly punished, tabiyas were no longer necessary, and violent checkmates were executed much more often than before. The inventor of these changes is unknown probably the new rules were not thought up by an individual, but came about from collective experimentation. These new rules were standardized by the 16th century advent of mass production and the printing press. The faster paced game was more suitable for organized play, chess notation, codified rules, and strategy books.

American chess was fortuitously trumpeted by founding father and chess aficionado Benjamin Franklin, who in 1750 penned The Morals of Chess.Franklins article praises the social and intellectual development that chess inspires. Franklin himself was known to while many hours away on chess, especially against beautiful women.

Paul Morphy, born in 1837 in New Orleans is hailed as the first American chess legend. After winning the 1857 American Chess Congress, Morphy accepted an invitation to Europe to take on the best players in England, France, and Germany. He crushed Adolph Anderssen, who was considered to be Europes leading player. There was no world championship at the time, but Paul Morphy was unofficially acknowledged as the best player of his time. He was the first American to be recognized as the best in a cultural or intellectual field. Paul Morphy quit chess soon after returning from Europe, and attempted to start a law practice. He was unsuccessful, and later went mad, believing that friends and family were out to kill him. He died at 1884 of a stroke while taking his customary midday bath.

The first U.S Championship was held in 1845, and the first womens championship was held in 1937. The National Chess Federation, which promoted many of these tournaments, later became the USCF, officially founded in 1939.

In 1972 USCF membership doubled due to interest in Bobby Fischer’s rise to the World Championship. Bobby Fischer was born in Brooklyn in 1943, learned the rules at 6 and became the youngest ever U.S Champion in 1957. He played Boris Spassky for the World Championship in 1972 in Reykjavik, Iceland. It was a theatrical match involving scene changes, last minute no-shows and prima-donna-like requests to change the lighting, the height of the toilets, etc. Spassky added little of the aforementioned drama! It is the most celebrated match in chess history, touted as a Cold War intellectual battle. Fischer won the match 12.5-8.5. Shortly after, Fischer followed in the footsteps of Morphy and dropped out of chess. He now lives in Iceland. There is a U.S. warrant for his arrest because in1992 he played a $3-million rematch against Spassky in Yugoslavia, violating Washingtons prohibition on American’s doing business there. He is also wanted for tax evasion.

Today the USCF organizes, promotes chess around the country, publishes the most widely read chess magazine in the world, Chess Life, and maintains and updates a ratings database for over 100,000 players. U.S. Scholastic chess is booming. Thousands of children compete each year in national scholastic tournaments. The 2005 SuperNationals, held in Nashville, TN, hit a record high of 5230 participants!

The following is a list of the USCF Presidents & Executive Directors throughout its history from 1939-2007:

USCF Presidents & Executive Directors

  • President, George Sturgis (1940-1942)
  • President, Elbert Wagner (1943-1947)
  • President, Paul Giers (1948-1950)
  • President, Harold Phillips (1951-1954) / Executive Director, Ken Harkness (1953-1960)
  • President, Frank Graves (1955-1957) / Executive Director, Ken Harkness (1953-1960)
  • President, Jerry Spann (1958-1960) / Executive Directors, Ken Harkness (1953-1960), Frank Brady (1960-1961)
  • President, Fred Kramer (1961-1963) / Executive Directors, Frank Brady (1960-1961), Joseph Reinhardt (1962-1963)
  • President,Ed Edmondson (1964-1966) / Executive Director, Ed Edmondson (1965-1976)
  • President, Marshall Rohland (1967-1969) / Executive Director, Ed Edmondson (1965-1976)
  • President, Leroy Dubeck (1970-1972) / Executive Director, Ed Edmondson (1965-1976)
  • President, Frank Skoff (1973-1975) / Executive Director, Ed Edmondson (1965-1976)
  • President, Geo Koltanowski (1976-1978) / Executive Director, Ed Edmondson (1965-1976)
  • President, Gary Sperling (1977-1981) / Executive Directors, Martin Morrison (1977-1978), Richard Meyerson (1978), Gerald Dullea (1979-1987)
  • President, Tim Redman (1982-1984) / Executive Director, Gerald Dullea (1979-1987)
  • President, Steve Doyle (1985-1987) / Executive Director, Gerald Dullea (1979-1987)
  • President, Harold Winston (1988-1990) / Executive Director, Al Lawrence (1988-1996)
  • President, Maxim Dlugy (1991-1993) / Executive Director, Al Lawrence (1988-1996)
  • President, Denis Barry (1994-1996) / Executive Director, Al Lawrence (1988-1996)
  • President, Donald Schultz (1997-1999) / Executive Director, Mike Cavallo ( 1997-1999)
  • President, Bob Smith (1999-2000) / Executive Director, George De Feis (2000-2002)
  • President, Tim Redman (2000-2001) / Executive Director, George De Feis (2000-2002)
  • President, John McCrary (2000-2003) / Executive Director, George De Feis (2000-2002) , Frank Niro (2002-2003)
  • President, Beatriz Marinello (2003-2005) / Executive Director, Bill Goichberg (2004-2005)
  • President, Bill Goichberg (2005) / Executive Director, Bill Goichberg (2005)

Internet Chess & Computer Technology

The most important development in chess in the past decade has been Internet chess and computer technology. There are numerous Internet chess venues such as the ICC and yahoo chess in which amateurs and professionals practice their openings, network and compete for cash prizes and rating points. ChessBase software allows any serious player to access a database of over 2 million games. Before the rounds of major tournaments, players frantically search their opponents games on ChessBase, hoping to determine their opponents chess style or which openings they favor.

Press coverage of computer peaked in 1997, when the Deep Blue computer developed by IBM defeated Garry Kasparov. Garry lost by the narrowest of margins, 2.5-3.5, and played well below his standard in the critical game. Still, many consider this match to be the death knell of humans’ chances when playing against computers. The silicon beats are not permitted to play in most international and U.S. championships.

The future of American chess is promising. Chess is increasingly covered by mainstream media, and since the game has rarely appeared on U.S. television, there is room for growth here. Another untapped chess market is the female population. Right now only 3-5% of USCF members are women. Raising this number would substantially increase USCF membership and also improve the image of chess. Schools across the country are adopting chess as part of the regular curriculum. The United States Chess Federation, and its presence in www.uschess.org and Chess Life magazine hope to raise the profile of chess all over the country, for every demographic.

Related Historical Readings

The Birth of the Chess Queen (2004) by Marilyn Yalom Feminist historian Marilyn Yalom examines the cultural contexts of the queen’s birth and metamorphosis to the strongest piece on the board.

Bobby Fischer Profile of a Prodigy (1973) by Frank Brady – Eloquent biography of Bobby Fischer, written by Dr. Frank Brady, a long time American chess supporter and organizer.

Bobby Fischer Goes to War ( 2004) Detailed account of the 1972 match between Fischer and Spassky, written by the best-selling authors of Wittgensteins Poker.

U.S Chess Championship 1845-1996 by Andrew Soltis and Gene McCormick- a history of the most prestigious event in America.


Women in Competitive Chess

Hou Yifan, the youngest female Grandmaster ever (2008). (Photo: Wikimedia Commons [CC BY-SA 2.0])

If you watch The Queen's Gambit, you will notice that Beth confronts both sexism and surprise&mdashthe perils of being a female chess player. The first chess grandmaster title awarded to a woman was in 1978, to Georgian player and Woman's World Chess Champion Nona Gaprindashvili. In 1998, Judit Polgár&mdashwho became a grandmaster at 15&mdashwas the first woman to take the lead in a US Open, tying for the win. The record for the youngest female grandmaster to date is held by Hou Yifan, who gained the title at 14. The Chinese prodigy is only 26, and she is the top-ranked female player globally. She is only the third woman to be ranked in the top 100 players globally, reflecting a world that is hostile to women in chess.

An essay for Slate by Wei Ji Ma&mdasha professor of neuroscience at NYU who is also a chess master&ndashexplains the difficulties women face in entering and remaining in competitive chess. To this day, many male players (and even a few female players) will claim biological differences. The current head of the Commission for Women&rsquos Chess suggested women are more naturally suited to music and arranging flowers. Professor Ji Ma sets the record straight&mdashno evidence indicates biology is the answer to women's absence in the absolute top echelon of chess. Instead, gender bias from an early age, lower prize money, and sexist comments by male players all have been documented. For all the young girls out there who may dream of beating the best players in the world like Beth in The Queen's Gambit, keep playing. In a more equal world, we can hope to see a female World Chess Champion in the open competition.


Watch the video: Το Παιχνίδι Σκάκι Του Ζέϊν - LEGO NINJAGO - Τα Μυστικά Τσάγια του Γου - Επεισόδιο 18


Comments:

  1. Nagor

    Certainly. I agree with everything above per said. We will examine this question.

  2. Rockford

    It to it will not pass for nothing.

  3. Roni

    What words... super, a remarkable idea

  4. Meldrik

    I have faith in this.

  5. Uchdryd

    To do nothing, you need to be good at it. Huh? Still something realties on this subject hunt.



Write a message