Wannalancet YTB-386 - History

Wannalancet YTB-386 - History


(YTB-386: dp. 218; 1. 100; b. 25'; dr. 10'; s. 12 k.;
cpl. 10; cl. Pessacus)

Wannalancet (YTB-385)—originally projected as YT-385—was launched on 12 January 1944 at Brooklyn, N.Y., by Ira S. Bushey and Sons and was completed in May 1944. Assigned to Service Force, Pacific Fleet, soon thereafter, the ship operated, in service, until placed in reserve in March of 1946 at San Diego. Reclassified as YTM 385 in February 1962, Wannalancet was transferred, on loan, to the Venezuelan Government in January 1963. Renamed Fabrio Gallipoli (R-14), she served with the Venezuelan Navy into the late 1970's. As of November 1978, she was slated for sale.

Wannalancet and the Kwinitekw Headwaters

1 2017-05-29T18:40:47+00:00 Marisa Parham 0b3989f8b160e074aa2cff76ed0bc80e7e72fc17 6 21 image_header 2019-06-03T13:29:23+00:00 Lauren Tuiskula b7c9c11aacd058b57ca4a71131c107a00033aab2 The Penacook sachem Passaconaway was renowned for his power and diplomacy in the wake of the first waves of colonization. He joined with other leaders in the region, including the Saunkskwa of Massachusett and her husband Nanapashemet, to gather families together, after devastating epidemics ravaged Indigenous communities, especially along the Massachusett coast, as both colonial captivities and intertribal conflict fostered further ruptures. Passaconaway&rsquos children intermarried with other leadership families, repairing the binds within the network of relations and creating a safety net for survivors. The Penacook network or &ldquosphere of influence&rdquo centered on Molôdomak, the deep river, but extended through waterways to the inland and coast. These were among the leaders who signed an important agreement with Massachusetts colony in 1644, creating binding relationships with the newcomers. This agreement is among the most significant documents that the Massachusetts State Archives holds today. [1]

During King Philip&rsquos War, many Native people sought protection, as they had done earlier, within these networks of waterways and kinship, and this strong web enabled travel into northern sanctuaries. Passaconaway&rsquos son, Wannalancet, pursued a strategy of neutrality early on, leading families from Penacook north to avoid the burgeoning conflict to the south, one of many paths to peace. As the Massachusetts missionary and magistrate Daniel Gookin observed, the Penacook sagamore took shelter with his kin at

&ldquothe head of Connecticut River all winter where was a place of good hunting for moose, deer, bear, and other such wild beasts and came not near either to the English, or his own countrymen, our enemies.&rdquo [2]

This was a densely forested region above the White Mountains, well known to Wabanaki people, but well beyond the knowledge and reach of English magistrates or military leaders.

Wanalancet and the families who went with him may also have traveled, during the fall and winter of 1675 the spring of 1676, to other key locations within these vast kin networks, including the French missions at Sillery, Sorel and Odanak (St. Francis), in Quebec, or to other Wabanaki towns and territories in the interior, on vital waterways like the Kennebec, Androscoggin and Saco Rivers, Lake Memphremagog and Lac Megantic. Wanalancet&rsquos wife reportedly was tied to the mission villages, while his brother Nanamocumuck had found refuge, decades earlier, in the Wabanaki communities on the Androscoggin River. Penacook people were mobile and often traveled in smaller groups of extended families, particularly in the fall and winter hunting season. Thus, it would not be surprising to find them among several communities or multiple locations during the war. Wanalancet was also among those who cultivated a peace treaty in the summer of 1676, traveling to the Wabanaki coast with other leaders, including Samuel Numphow and the Saco River leader known as Squando, to participate in councils that led to the Cocheco Treaty of July 1676. [3]

The spruce and fir forests of the Connecticut River headwaters remain a vital sanctuary for many Indigenous animals, including moose, deer and bear, as well as vital medicinal plants. It is a place to which many Wabanaki families, as well as other Native people, regularly return to hunt, fish, camp and gather, or simply to remember, along old paths. Wabanaki basketmakers used those same trails to travel back and forth between northern New England and Quebec in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The &ldquoNorth Country&rdquo also appears in contemporary literature. Mohegan author Melissa Tantaquidgeon Zobel&rsquos young adult novel Wabanaki Blues features an Abenaki-Mohegan protagonist who returns to her mother&rsquos North Country roots. Abenaki author Cheryl Savageau has published several poems that reflect the tradition of return to the North Country, as sanctuary, for both the living and the dead. [Link to Northeastern Naturalist article] Savageau lovingly describes her own father&rsquos relationship to this northern land in her poem, &ldquoTo Human Skin&rdquo from Dirt Road Home:

Over the last meal
we&rsquoll ever eat together
he tells me, I&rsquom going up north,
up to the old home country,
Abenaki country. He smiles
in anticipation, his feet
already feeling the forest floor,
while my stomach tightens
with the knowledge that he
is going home. I push
the feeling away. But when spirit
talks to spirit, there is no denying.
Through the long days of mourning,
I see my father&rsquos spirit
walk into the bright autumn woods.
Red, gold, and evergreen,
they welcome him back,
his relatives, green of heart,
and rooted, like him,
in the soil of this land
called Ndakinna.

A More Complex Picture of Captivity

Belknap and Hubbard may have used local lore as the core source for their accounts. Over the years, even as historians gained access to more primary source documents, the narrative of Cocheco remained eerily intact. Although some historians raised questions about the end of the narrative, the &ldquosham fight&rdquo and separation of the &ldquopeaceable&rdquo from &ldquostrange&rdquo Indians was often recounted as fact.
However, historians Mary Beth Norton and George Madison Bodge, through careful consideration of primary sources, each called into question Belknap&rsquos oft-quoted narrative. Three letters featuring correspondence between military leaders present at Cocheco and the Massachusetts Governor and Council refute Belknap&rsquos assertion that the party was separated into two groups before those deemed &ldquoperfidious&rdquo were sent to Boston as prisoners. These letters also present specific numbers for those sent down to Boston, noting consistently that 350 people were sent to Boston, more than 200.

In Soldiers in King Philip&rsquos War, Bodge begins to dispel the standard narrative, citing a letter from Richard Waldron, Nicholas Shapleigh and Thomas Daniel dated September 10, 1676, from the Massachusetts Archives. Shapleigh and Daniel were leading settlers from local coastal towns who provided &ldquoAssistance&rdquo in &ldquoSecuring&rdquo the &ldquoIndians,&rdquo at Cocheco. Moreover, Waldron, Shapleigh and Daniel comprised the "Committee to Treat with the Indians," signing the Cocheco Treaty of July 1676. Their collective presence in September would have been read by Wannalancet and other leaders as a sign of a continuing treaty process. Shapleigh and Daniel's letter shows, however, that there was no separation of the "peaceful" from the "perfidious." Rather, orders had come from the Council for all of the people taken at Cocheco to be sent to Boston, with the exception of a small number of men selected to serve as scouts, and their families. In responding to the Governor and Council, Shapleigh and Daniel noted that they followed their orders: &ldquoyor Pleasures being to have all sent down to determine their case at Boston, hath been Attended keeping here about 10 young men of ym to Serve in ye Army with their families.&rdquo As this letter and Bodge&rsquos analysis demonstrates, Waldron did not free half of those he took at Cocheco and instead sent nearly all of the captives to Boston, regardless of whether or not they participated in the war.[3]

Additional letters, from the Maine Historical Society, provide further confirmation of the number of people sent to Boston following the meeting with Waldron at Cocheco. In a letter dated September 6, 1676, Shapleigh and Daniel reported to the Massachusetts Bay Governor and Council:

They Willingly & readily Surendred up there Armes & Submitted themselues to what was desir&rsquod[,] their Number being about 350 of wch 100 are men[,] under pretensions of Imploying ym in ye Country Seruice (& to yt end [being] Mustered) gaue us ye fitt opportunity of Surprisal though wee think in reality had they been Soe Improu&rsquod they being Soe Willing therto might haue proued Much for ye Publick good
ye Comandrs are earnest in ye Suddain Remoueal of al of ym wch may proue Very prejuditicall by Reason of diuers of their relations that are abroad in these parts whome wee now Expect to make Suddain Spoyle upon us & if ye Army leaue us Assoon wee Judge our Selues in a more danger[ous] Condision yn they found us in wee Leaue wt is further needfull to Aduise yr honrs to ye Realtion of ye bearer Majr. Waldron. [4]

This Day I drew up ye Indians at Cocheco upon ye open Ground before my house under ye Notion of takeing them out into ye Seruice, such of y[m] as I saw meet, upon assembled I made them eate & Drink, & then surrounded y[m] with ye Army & calling ye chiefe Sagamores into ye Center I told y[m] what must bee don, only yt ye Innocent should not be damnified, they surrendered their Armes 20 in Numbr. We haue taken 80 fighting Men & 20 old men, & 250. Women & children 350 in all.

We find among y[m] (as I [have?]] Information) Naraganset Indians, Groton & Nashaway Indians &c I shall [torn] it very necessary & judge it safe to use severell of ours in ye Warre. I humbly request Advice to ye Army to stay a while to search ye Woods, at least an Expresse Order of yt Captn Hunting may stay with his Indians & 40. of the English, such as he shall chuse which may be suitable number to doe service among us. Wee expect eury houre to [several words torn] upon us but hope yt by yt meanes we now) bee capeable of I [several words torn] war.

In her book In the Devil&rsquos Snare, historian Mary Beth Norton describes the discrepancies between the standard narrative, as recounted by Belknap and Hubbard, and the above correspondence. As she writes, the documents discredit Hubbard&rsquos assertions that only half of the people gathered at Cocheco were sent south. Further, while &ldquoHubbard claimed that Waldron, Hathorne and the other commanders &lsquomutually agreed&rsquo to capture the Indians,&rdquo these letters confirm that &ldquothey acted in response to orders from Boston.&rdquo Further, Waldron and the officers sent down the total group of those taken at Cocheco in direct response to that directive from the Massachusetts Council, despite Shapleigh and Daniel&rsquos concerns that sending &ldquoall&rdquo would likely make their local settlements more vulnerable to attacks by the relations of those captives still in the north. She writes that &ldquoboth alterations of the historical record worked to reduce the responsibility of the Boston authorities for the unwarranted seizure of the peaceful group.&rdquo[5]

An additional letter, held by the Newberry Library, demonstrates that Waldron anticipated and awaited the arrival of the Massachusetts troops before proceeding with his stratagem. The Massachusetts Council was aware of his plans. On September 2, Waldron wrote to Governor Leverett that he could not &ldquoyet prosecute my Intentions, referring to our Indians here, for want of ye forces designed hither which I hope this night may Rendezvous with me.&rdquo Those &ldquoIndians here&rdquo included Wannalancet and his company, according to Waldron&rsquos report.[6]

Perhaps most important, the letters from the Maine Historical Society also show that there was not a &ldquosham fight&rdquo but rather the people were &ldquosurpris[ed]&rdquo into &ldquosurrender&rdquo under the pretence of peace, with Waldron offering a collective meal, including &ldquofood&rdquo and &ldquodrink,&rdquo as well as the possibility of recruiting some of the men into &ldquoservice&rdquo as scouts. Only twenty people, of the whole group, were apparently armed. As Waldron himself reported, the majority were women and children. [7]

Wannalancet YTB-386 - History

Two great Indian linguistic families dominated the eastern United States, the Algonquians and the Iroquoians. The realm of the Algonquians stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes and beyond, and from the Carolinas to Hudson Bay. Within this area was a small section where the Iroquois ranged and ruled. Although not living in New Hampshire, the Iroquois probably warred in this State against their Algonquian neighbors. The Indians formerly living in the immediate vicinity of Maine and New Hampshire are known generally by the name of Abnaki ("men of the East").

Within the confines of the State were such tribes as the Coosucs, who lived at the junction of the Connecticut and Ammonoosuc Rivers and northward the Piscataquas, near Dover the Sokokis, known as Pequawkets on the upper Saco River and as Ossipees around the lake by that name and the Merrimack River tribes, more often known as the Penacook Confederacy. Members of this Confederacy in New Hampshire were the Nashuas residing along the river by that name, the Souhegans or Natacooks on the Souhegan River, the Amoskeags at Manchester, the Penacooks proper at Concord, and the Winnipesaukees in central New Hampshire. Sometimes included are the Coosucs to the north, the Squamscots at Exeter, the Winnecowets at Hampton, the Piscataquas at Portsmouth, and the Newichawanocks near Rochester. The Amarascoggins had a village on the Androscoggin River at Lewiston, Maine, and presumably roamed the eastern reaches of New Hampshire's north country. The Saint Francis Indians in Canada claimed portions of this area, and ranged in the vicinity. It was to this tribe that most of the New Hampshire Indians ultimately withdrew for instance, little is heard about the Penacooks as a separate tribe after Queen Anne's War.

Moorehead, eminent chronicler of the "Red Paint People" of Maine, made a survey of the Merrimack Valley in 1931 and reported evidences of this mysterious people in the New Hampshire lake country. The "Red Paint People" represented a pre-Algonquian culture, and there is consider able probability that the Winnipesaukee district was the western outpost of their habitat. Starr King in his classic volume, "The White Hills," deplored the absence of Indian names in the White Mountains, but aboriginal names still cling to the southern part of the State in villages as Penacook, Suncook, and Contoocook in lakes as Baboosic, Massabesic, and Sunapee and in streams as Soucook and Piscataquog. With the mountain region is associated the legends of Chocorua, Passaconaway, Wannalancet, and the Great Carbuncle, and in the folklore of other New Hampshire regions the Indians have left their trace.

Indian relics have been found in some quantities in New Hampshire. At least eight communities Nashua, Manchester, Concord, Franklin, The Weirs, Hooksett, Suncook, and Laconia were built on the sites of Indian villages. One of the most interesting of these primitive villages was at The Weirs on Lake Winnipesaukee, where a large weir or fish-trap in the shape of a "W" was built of stone and interwoven with saplings. It was thought that the Indians remained here until 1700. Another fishing village was at the division of the Merrimack into the Pemigewasset and Winnipesaukee Rivers. At this point the shad went to Lake Winnipesaukee and the salmon up the cooler waters of the Pemigewasset. Here (at Franklin) many relics have been found and collected. The remains of an Indian "fort" at Little Bay in Sanbornton existed until well into the nineteenth century it has been thought that this structure was built as a defense against the Mohawks sometime prior to 1675. Near Ossipee Lake a large Indian burial mound was discovered, where skeletons were uncovered in sitting posture, grouped in circles. Skeletal remains have also been found at Brookline, Hudson, Dover, Sutton, Franklin, Keene, and Claremont.

Numerous artifacts have been discovered, including axes, knives, adzes, pestles, engraved stones, spearheads, arrowheads, gouges, and chisels. Occasionally pipes and pottery fragments have been dug up. The lake region and the Merrimack Valley have been the most prolific sources of relics. The more important collections are at the home of Mary A. Proctor of Franklin, the Manchester Institute of Arts and Sciences, the Manchester Historic Association, the Peabody Museum at Salem, and the Peabody Museum at Harvard University.

In general, the New Hampshire aborigines conformed to the general pattern of the eastern woodland Indians. Living in wigwams rudely constructed of bark and skins, they ranged the forest hunting and fishing while their women cultivated the near-by fields. Hunting was carried on by means of the bow, spear, and "culheag" or log trap. Fish were taken at weirs, in nets, or by the spear aided by the flare of a pine knot. In agriculture the Indians had made enough progress to be of invaluable aid to "the white man when he came." Maize or Indian corn was the chief crop, and the settler found most useful the Indian injunction to plant "when the leaves of the white oak are as big as the ear of a mouse." "Girdling" or cutting a ring deep enough in a tree to kill the foliage, thus letting in the light, was another device learned from the primitive agriculturist and appreciated by the pioneer. Maize was the staple, but Indian agriculture also included beans, squashes, and pumpkins. Tobacco seems to have been raised in New England as far north as the Kennebec Valley. Corn when pounded in a mortar was known as hominy mixed with beans it was called succotash. Mortars were manufactured of wood or stone a glacial pothole, when small enough, was sometimes used&mdashan example of such an outdoor mortar is at Willow Hill in Franklin.

The religion of these primitives was animism, or belief in spirits representing nature in its various phases. The name "Manitou" was given to a spirit which might be good or evil, greater or lesser. Like many other savages, the New Hampshire Indians had their story of the deluge. Josselyn, in his "Account of Two Voyages to New England," reported the following version:

Ask them whither they go when they dye, they will tell you pointing with their finger to Heaven beyond the white mountains, and do hint at Noah's Flood, as may be conceived by a story they have received from Father to Son, time out of mind, that a great while agon their Countrey was drowned, and all the People and other Creatures in it, only one Powaw and his Webb foreseeing the Flood fled to the white mountains carrying a hare along with them and so escaped after a while the Powaw sent the Hare away, who not returning emboldened thereby they descended, and lived many years after, and had many Children, from whom the Countrie was filled again with Indians.

Several Indian sachems left their impression upon New Hampshire history and legend. The greatest leader was Passaconaway, head of the Penacook Confederacy when the first Europeans came. His attitude was uniformly friendly to the newcomers, and he pursued a moderate policy in the face of white aggressions. Passaconaway gained considerable reputation as a medicine man or "powwow," as he was termed in the seventeenth century in this particular region. According to one chronicler he could ". make the water burne, the rocks move, the trees dance, metamorphise himself into a flaming man. He will do more for in winter, when there are no green leaves to be got, he will burne an old one to ashes, and putting those into water, produce a new green leaf, which you shall not only see, but substantially handle and carrie away and make of a dead snake's skin a living snake, both to be seen, felt, and heard. This I write but upon the report of the Indians who confidently affirm stranger things.

As an old man he delivered a valedictory speech urging his followers to maintain peace with their new neighbors. This speech has been variously reported. One rather fanciful version is given by Potter:

The oak will soon break before the whirlwind. I commune with the Great Spirit. He whispers me now &mdash "Tell your people, Peace, Peace, is the only hope of your race. I have given fire and thunder to the pale faces for weapons &mdash I have made them plentier than the leaves of the forest, and still shall they increase! These meadows they shall turn with the plow &mdash these forests shall fall by the axe &mdash the pale faces shall live upon your hunting grounds, and make their villages upon your fishing places!" The Great Spirit says this, and it must be so! We are few and powerless before them! We must bend before the storm! The wind blows hard! The old oak trembles! Its branches are gone! Its sap is frozen! It bends! It falls! Peace, Peace, with the white man &mdash is the command of the Great Spirit &mdash and the wish &mdash the last wish &mdash of Passaconaway.

Upon his death Passaconaway passed from history into legend, which relates that he was received into heaven after he had been transported to the summit of Mount Washington in a sledge drawn by wolves. It is probable that this Elijah story was invented originally for another Indian and another mountain, and then transferred to Passaconaway. His name has been preserved in New Hampshire by a village and a mountain. Passaconaway was succeeded by his son Wonalancet, who strove to keep the peace even during King Philip's War. Unable to restrain his followers, he retired from leadership in 1685. A New Hampshire range and village perpetuate his name. His nephew, Kancamagus, after some provocation led the assault on Dover in 1689 in spite of this, a mountain bears his name. Another opponent similarly honored is Paugus, the doughty foe of Lovewell in the celebrated fight near Fryeburg, who can claim a peak in the Sandwich Range thanks to the efforts of Lucy Larcom, poet and friend of Whittier.

The Queen of Caskoak

Machigonne your truest name
before the French and English came to raid
the land of her tallest trees and pull the fish from
her blue knee.
The fur they took in trade for pots and drink and
rusty blades, could not sate their endless hunger or abate
their supernatural greed.
Oh, Machigonne, your name is dust.
You have begun to bleed.

Casco, now, is how they call the great neck as the mighty trees fall.
Land divided among men is stolen once again.
Waymouth kidnaps five of us before Gorges and John Mason arrive
to claim the eastern lands, and now we die and die.
The treaties cannot last when traders block the fish from
moving past, cows trample our corn, yet you say
we are a thorn in your side.
You are the ones who cannot abide by your own laws.

When we fight, we have just cause to grieve for Machigonne
and those who now walk beyond this world.
French or English, we must choose or so you say, if not
to lose the land we hold most dear.
We come away only to starve anew and now
our hearts are hard.

In spring of 1690, we gathered with Castine, our anger risen like the
streams you choked with nets to starve our kin, we followed one
trusted chief whose child the Baron sought to keep.
Madockawando leads the men and killing will begin.
Just for today we are many and will break our anger on your flesh,
burn your walls to nothingness.
Four hundred fighting men and more, with French to batter down
the door, we come to Machigonne to prove
Fort Loyal cannot stand
against our warring hand.

An English is a worse brigand than any Frenchman, so they tell us
when we fight and burn your forts down in the night.
We aren&rsquot the ones you trusted to survive with white flag
waving before your eyes.
That was Burneiffe, who was in charge of
keeping order and giving quarter.
To trust is almost always wise but not to trust your English lies.
Thus you learn the bitter price you pay for our forgiveness.

Six wars were fought here, laying claim to land that
many tried to tame until we finally surrendered,
Penobscots, Micmacs, Malecite, Abenaki with little left
you had not plundered from our dawnland home.
The &ldquoBeaver Wars&rdquo were fought for pelts,
King Philip&rsquos War, abuse of trade, and Squando&rsquos child,
drowned just to see if he could swim, like some wild river otter.
Then scalp hunters seeking bounty came to Machigonne again.
King William&rsquos War was fought for land, Fort William Henry could not stand against
Abenaki and French, who drove the English from the lower Kennebec.
In 1701 Queen Anne&rsquos War came to our shores, when,
once again French and English wanted more and more and more.
Greedy bullets, dripping blades, smoking battlements laid waste and always
we must take a side, knowing we can no longer hide from settlers
thick as leaves on trees, coveting everything they see.
Dummer&rsquos War for William Dummer, who sent Colonel Westbrook to
burn our homes and fields and starve us out.
Norridgewock fell, one hundred dead.
Pigwacket too, and if you wore the other shoe it would be dipped in red.
At last your war with France burned high, for seven years, and we had
nothing left to lose when forced to choose between
the evils that befell our people.

One in four of us was dead, gone to the wind and finally you said the line was
drawn in seventeen and fifty-nine, the words you give to white man&rsquos time.
You name our demise victorious, so-called history and glory
fought for land paid in blood and bone.
Machigonne was just one, first become Casco, then Old Falmouth,
finally as the years wore on, Portland, Maine was born.
The massacre you blame us for is but the story of your shame,
and those sins for which you must atone.
Machigonne was not your own.

Wannalancet YTB-386 - History

(YTB-386: dp. 218 1. 100'0" b. 25'0" dr. 10'0" s. 11 k. (tl.) cl. Iwana)

Washakie (YTB-386) was laid down on 13 October 1943 at Brooklyn, N.Y., by Ira S. Bushey & Sons as YT-386 launched on 13 February 1944, reclassified a large harbor tug and redesignated YTB-386 on 15 May 1944 delivered to the Navy on 30 June 1944 and placed in service on 1 July 1944.

The tug steamed from New York, transited the Panama Canal, and served the service force, Pacific Fleet, for the duration of World War II. During the last year of hostilities, she served at various forward bases in the Central Pacific but finally ended up at Okinawa. She remained active at Okinawa even after the Japanese capitulation in mid-August 1945. When a typhoon struck Okinawa in October, Washakie was one of several ships grounded or otherwise damaged by the storm. As a result of that damage, she was placed out of service on 16 October 1945. Soon refloated, she was returned to the United States sometime in November and, after completing inactivation overhaul, was placed in reserve with the San Diego Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet.

In May 1953, Washakie came out of reserve, retransited the Panama Canal, and reported for duty at Mayport, Fla. There she remained for the next 22 years, serving under the auspices of the Commandant, 6th Naval District. In February 1962, she was reclassified a medium harbor tug and received the new designation YTM-386. Apparently, she was placed out of service and her name struck from the Navy list sometime between 1 October 1975 and 1 January 1976, for her name appears in the Naval Vessel Register for 1975 but not in that for 1976. Presumably, she was sold.


I did attend Camp Wannalancet in 1965 . . . as a counselor. I recall tying more sneakers that summer than I thought possible, having been assigned to the little ones, among them Mary Elizabeth Sweeney and Sue Ellen Greene. Sr Justina St John was the superior, Sr Helen Emmanuel was about recuperating from surgery, and the loveliest nun whose name I can't recall–Euphrasia? was active in the camp. One day when I took my charges for their afternoon swim in the lake, a snake surfaced and swam about them. The swim instructor quickly said, "Shhhhh! We don't want to scare him!" I also used to take my charges out on the lake in a rowboat, and once a ways from the dock, would tell them if they wanted to return to sing "I Dream of Jeannie with the Big Brown Eyes." The lake had a lot of lily pads.

Sarah of Wamesit

1 2021-03-10T14:48:09+00:00 Marisa Parham 0b3989f8b160e074aa2cff76ed0bc80e7e72fc17 6 1 image_header 2021-03-10T14:48:09+00:00 Marisa Parham 0b3989f8b160e074aa2cff76ed0bc80e7e72fc17 Like Samuel Numphow, Sara of Wamesit lived at the mission community of Wamesit, in Patucket. Sara lost a young son to vigilante violence and was herself injured. She was among the people of Wamesit who sought shelter, with Wanalancet, to the north, when it was no longer safe to remain in their town on the lower Molôdemak.

In November 1675, the Wamesit leaders Numphow and John Line composed a letter en route to Penacook, when they received word that their Chelmsford neighbor, Thomas Henchman, had sent a local Native servant, Wepocositt, to persuade them to return, by order of the Massachusetts Governor and Council:

I, Numphow, and John a Line, we send a messenger to you again (Wepocositt) with this answer, we cannot come home again, we go towards the French, we go where Wannalancet is the reason is, we went away from our home, we had help from the Council, but that did not do us good, but we had wrong by the English. 2dly. The reason is we went away from the English, for when there was any harm done in Chelmsford, they laid it to us, and said we did it, but we know ourselves we never did any harm to the English, but we go away peaceably and quietly. 3dly. As for the Island, we say there is no safety for us, because many English be not good, and may be they come to us and kill us, as in the other case. We are not sorry for what we leave behind, but we are sorry the English have driven us from our praying to God and from our teacher. We did begin to understand a little of praying to God. We thank humbly the Council. We remember our love to Mr. Henchman and James Richardson. [1]

&hellipthey came to the wigwams, and called to the poor Indians to come out of doors, which most of them readily did, both men, women, and children, and slew outright a lad of about twelve years old, which child&rsquos mother was also one of the wounded she was a widow, her name Sarah, a woman of good report for religion. She was daughter to a Sagamore, named Sagamor[e] John, who was a great friend to the English, who lived and died at the same place. Her two husbands, both deceased were principal Sagamores, the one named John Tahattawan, and the other Oonamog, both pious men, and rulers for the praying Indians, one at Marlborough, the other at Nashobah .[2]

Sarah&rsquos father, John, was, as Gookin noted, a leader at Wamesit, and she had married Native men from neighboring towns, part of the marriage alliances that helped to rebuild regional networks in the wake of epidemics. She had first married John Tahattawants, who came from a leadership family on the Musketaquid River, then, after his death, had married Oonamog of Okkanamesit, who died in 1674, just before Gookin&rsquos tour of the mission communities. As Gookin noted, the &ldquoyouth slain was&rdquo the &ldquoonly son&rdquo of Sara&rsquos &ldquofirst husband his grandfather, old Tahattawan, was a Sachem, and a pious man&rdquo of Musketaquid and Nashobah (Concord and Littleton).[3]

The &ldquomurderers&rdquo of Sara&rsquos son, whose &ldquonames were Lorgin and Robins,&rdquo were &ldquoseized and committed to prison,&rdquo but when tried, &ldquowere cleared by the jury,&rdquo which Gookin attributed to their &ldquoprejudice,&rdquo rather than &ldquowant of evidence,&rdquo as they claimed. This &ldquocruel murder and fight&rdquo Gookin noted, &ldquooccasioned most of those poor Christian Indians to fly away from their wigwams not long after.&rdquo

In their November letter, Numphow and John Line also spoke of their unwillingness to go to Deer Island, where the people of Natick were already contained. Indeed, after they wrote their letter, and some of their party returned to Wamesit, an order arrived from the Massachusetts council to &ldquosecure&rdquo the Indians at both Concord and Wamesit, &ldquoeither at Deare Iland or in the places where they live&rdquo and to ensure &ldquothey be all disarmed.&rdquo[4]

These documents reveal how few options were available for women like Sarah. Although she was from a leadership family, and had married into leadership families, which were ostensibly under the protection of Massachusetts colony, both she and her child proved vulnerable, with few avenues for security. She could remain in her town, under the &ldquoprotection&rdquo of local settlers, which put her and her kin at risk of further vigilante violence, as well as being caught in the crossfire of war. Indeed, in a letter written in December, Numhpow, John Line, the teacher Simon Betomkom, and Samuel Numphow, expressed their concern for what would happen to them should &ldquothe Indians&hellip.come&rdquo and do &ldquomischief&rdquo now that &ldquosnow&rdquo was &ldquoon the ground.&rdquo Alternatively, Sarah could either willingly go, or be forcibly taken, to Deer Island, where she might face the worst of winter, with little to no options for shelter and subsistence. Or she could head toward the north country, where she might find shelter from the storm. However, as further correspondence showed, even remaining at Wamesit, or traveling north late in the season, could potentially lead to dire circumstances, with not enough food to subsist, and winter coming on. Many Native people in the mission communities, realized, as winter arrived, that their routes to survival and subsistence were severely curtailed, even as they still sought to remain &ldquopeaceable&rdquo in their places.



Books about the early history of the Greater Lowell area including the Pawtucket, Pennacook, and Wamesit Indians

Allen, W. (1820). The history of Chelmsford: From its Origin in 1653, to the year 1820--together with an historical sketch of the church, and biographical notices of the four first pastors. To which is added a memoir of the Pawtuckett tribe of Indians. With a large appendix. Haverhill, MA: P. M. Green. Available at Google Books and archive.org at. https://archive.org/details/ historychelmsfo00allegoog

Burtt, J. F. (1976). Passaconway&rsquos Kingdom. In A. L. Eno, Jr. (ed.) Cotton Was King: A History of Lowell, Massachusetts (pp. 3 - 9). Lowell: Lowell Historical Society.

Coburn, F. W. (1920). History of Lowell and its People Vol. 1. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Co.

Forrant, R., & Strobel, C. (2011). Ethnicity in Lowell. Boston: National Park Service.

Griffin, S. S. (1913). Quaint bits of Lowell history: A few interesting stories of earlier days. Lowell, Massachusetts: Butterfield Printing Company. Available on archive.org at https://archive.org/details/cu31924028838831.

Kenngott, G. F. (1912). The record of a city: A social survey of Lowell Massachusetts. New York: The Macmillan Company. Available on archive.org at https://archive.org/details/recordofcitysoci00kenn.

Leavenworth, P. S. (1999) &ldquo&rsquoThe best title that Indians can claime&rsquo: Native agency and consent in the transferal of Penacook-Pawtucket land in the seventeenth century&rdquo. New England Quarterly: A Historical Review of New England Life and Letters (72), 275&ndash300.

Pendergast, J. (1991). The bend in the river. Tyngsborough, MA: Merrimac River Press.

Waters, W. W., & Perham, H. S. (1917). History of Chelmsford Massachusetts. Lowell, Massachusetts: Courier Citizen. Available at Google Books and on archive.org at https://archive.org/details/historyofchelmsf00wate.

Books and articles about Indians in New England

Burrage, H. S. (1887). Rosier's relation of Waymouth&rsquos voyage to the coast of Maine, 1605 with an introduction and notes. Portland, ME: Stephen Berry.

Cronon, W. (1983). Changes in the land: Indians, colonists, and the ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang.

Daly, J. (1997). No Middle Ground: Pennacook-New England Relations in the Seventeenth Century. Master&rsquos thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland. Available for pdf download at http://research.library.mun.ca/1032/.

Dolin, E. J. (2010) Fur, Fortune, and Empire: The Epic History of the Fur Trade in America . New York: W. W. Norton & Company

Drake, S. G. (1837). Biography and history of the Indians of North America, from its first discovery to the present time. Boston: Antiquarian Society. Available on archive.org at https://archive.org/details/cihm_39796.

Drake, S. G. (1876). The Old Indian Chronicle. Boston: Antiquarian Society. Available on archive.org at https://archive.org/details/oldindianchroni00lithgoog and at Google Books.

Karr R. (1999). Indian New England 1524&ndash1674: a compendium of eyewitness accounts of Native American life. Pepperell, Massachusetts: Branch Line Press.

Kupperman, K. O. (2000). Indians and English: Facing Off in Early America (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Richter, D. K. (2003). Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press.

Russell H. (1980). Indian New England Before the Mayflower. Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England.

Salisbury, N. (1996). The Indians' Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans. The William and Mary Quarterly, 53(3), pp. 435-458.

Salisbury, N. (1984). Manitou and Providence: Indians, Europeans, and the making of New England, 1500-1643. New York: Oxford University Press.

History of Lowell, Massachusetts

Lowell is a historic Massachusetts city located on the Merrimack River in Middlesex county about 30 miles north of Boston.

Incorporated in the 19 th century, Lowell was a mill town named after businessman Francis Cabot Lowell, inventor of a manufacturing system known as the Lowell System.

Lowell Mass, illustration published in Illustrated History of Lowell, circa 1868

Before it became a mill town, Lowell was home to Pawtucket and Pennacook Indians for thousands of years but their population was significantly reduced by an epidemic around 1619.

The following is the history of Lowell, Massachusetts:

  • Reverend John Eliot makes a series of missionary visits to the Native-American villages at Pawtucket Falls and Wamesit Falls.
  • Captain Simon Willard and Captain Edward Johnson visits the area and decides to create a settlement there.
  • On May 29, the Massachusetts General Court incorporates the town of Chelmsford and the town of Billerica.
  • To prevent the local natives from being displaced, Colonial authorities establish the Wamesit reserve, a tract of land, between the Merrimack and Concord rivers, for use by the Pennacook tribe.
  • The Massachusetts General Court modifies and enlarges the boundaries of Chelmsford and the Wamesit Indian Reservation.
  • The Massachusetts General Court modifies and enlarges the boundaries of Chelmsford and the Wamesit Indian Reservation for a second time.
  • A ditch is dug to clearly mark the boundaries between the town of Chelmsford and the Wamesit Indian Reservation.
  • Wannalancet, sachem of the Penacook Indians of Concord, NH, fears an impending attack by the Mohawk tribe so the Penacook rows down the Merrimack River to Wamesit and builds a fortified fort on the hill at Belvidere, now called Fort Hill. The white settlers shut themselves up in their garrison houses in anticipation of this suspected Mohawk attack.
  • Phineas Whiting & Josiah Fletcher open a cotton mill on the Pawtucket Canal.
  • Francis Cabot Lowell and associates establish the Boston Manufacturing Company.
  • On August 10, Francis Cabot Lowell dies and Nathan Appleton and Patrick Jackson become the leaders of the company.
  • The Boston Manufacturing Company decides to open another mill and choose Pawtucket Falls in Lowell as the location.

Lowell Mills, image published in the Illustrated History of Lowell, circa 1868
  • On December 1, Appleton, Jackson, and several others establish the Merrimack Manufacturing Company.
  • Thomas Hurd builds a new mill at Lower Locks that uses power looms.
  • St. Anne’s church is established.
  • The first newspaper, the Lowell Daily Journal, is issued in Lowell.
  • The Merrimack Manufacturing Company builds a school on Merrimack Street in East Chelmsford.
  • The Merrimack Company’s Machine Shop is completed.
  • The Hamilton Manufacturing Company is incorporated.
  • The Middlesex Mechanics Association is incorporated.
  • On March 1, the village of Wamesit in Chelmsford is incorporated as a town and it is named in honor of Francis Cabot Lowell.
  • The population of Lowell at the time is 2,500.
  • The Lowell Manufacturing Company is incorporated.
  • Appleton Manufacturing Company is incorporated.
  • The Lowell Bank is incorporated.
  • The Boston and Lowell Railroad is incorporated.
  • The Lowell fire department is established.
  • The Middlesex, Tremont, and Suffolk Manufacturing Companies are established.
  • The population of Lowell is 6,477.
  • The Lowell high school opens.
  • Battle of the Stone Bridge takes place.
  • The Lawrence Manufacturing Company is established in Lowell.
  • The Railroad Bank is incorporated.
  • The Lowell Irish Benevolant Society is founded.
  • The Police Court is established.
  • A poor farm is established in Lowell.
  • On June 26, President Andrew Jackson and Vice President Martin Van Buren visit Lowell.
  • On October 25, Henry Clay visits Lowell.
  • On July 11, artist James Abbott McNeill Whistler is born in Lowell.
  • The Lowell Mill Girls strike.
  • The Belvidere Manufacturing Company is established.
  • David Crockett, George Thompson, Michel Chevalier, and Daniel Webster visit Lowell.
  • Lowell was connected with Boston, Nashua, Groton, and Lawrence by the Boston and Lowell Railroad.
  • The Boot Cotton Mills is incorporated.
  • The Tri-Weekly Courier is published.
  • On April 1, Lowell becomes the third incorporated city in Massachusetts.
  • The Lowell Mill Girls go on strike for a second time.
  • The Lowell dispensary is founded.
  • The population of Lowell is 17,663.
  • The Massachusetts Mills are incorporated.
  • The Whitney Mills are incorporated.
  • On April 17, Mayor Luther Lawrence killed by falling into the Middlesex Mills wheel pit while showing visitors around his mill.
  • John Street Congregational Church is established.
  • The Lowell Corporation Hospital opens.
  • The Lowell Museum is founded by dry goods merchant Moses P. Kimball.
  • The population of Lowell is 20,981.
  • The Lowell cemetery is established on Knapp Ave.
  • The Vox Populi newspaper is established.
  • Louis Bergeron and his family become the first recorded French-Canadian family to settle in Lowell.
  • The Lowell streets are paved.
  • The Lowell Female Labor Reform is founded.
  • The Lowell city library opens.

Seal of the city of Lowell, Mass
  • The Lowell Mill Girls donate clothing to the victims of the Irish famine.
  • The city of Lowell raises $1990 for Irish famine relief.
  • The Appleton Bank is incorporated.
  • On Thanksgiving, the Northern Canal is completed.
  • The Salem and Lowell Railroad is incorporated.
  • On September 18, Abraham Lincoln visits Lowell.
  • The Battle of Suffolk Bridge takes place.
  • The Lynde Hill Reservoir is constructed by Locks And Canals Company in Belvidere .
  • Belvidere Woolen Company is established.
  • A strike at the Lowell Machine Shop.
  • Huntington Hall is built.
  • Wamesit bank is incorporated.

The Lowell Jail circa 1908
  • The population of Lowell is 36,827.
  • On March 30, Rhoda M. Wilkins dies of poison and Anna A. Dower is later charged with her murder.
  • On June 19, Elizabeth A. Moore is murdered by Bryant Moore.
  • The textile mills in Lowell sell off the remainder of their cotton supply and close down production.
  • On April 19, the Sixth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment attempt to stop the Baltimore Riot. in Maryland and several soldiers are killed including two from Lowell, Luther Ladd and Addison Whitney. These soldiers are the first casualties of the Civil War.
  • On April 20, the Soldier’s Aid Association formed, the first in the U.S.
  • On September 24, Prince Jerome Napoleon and Princess Clotilde visit Lowell.
  • On July 16, Nathan Appelton dies.
  • The Lowell Horse Railroad is incorporated.
  • On February 25, the Soldier’s Fair takes place.
  • The First National Bank is established.
  • On March 1, the Lowell Horse Railroad line opens.
  • St. John’s Hospital is founded.
  • On July 4, the Statue of Victory is erected in Monument Square.
  • The Old Ladies Home is established.
  • On October 8, General Sheridan visits Lowell.
  • St. Joseph’s Church is established to serve the growing French-Canadian community.
  • Lowell holds its first celebration of St. Jean-Baptiste Day at St. Joseph’s Church.
  • Cowley’s History of Lowell is published.
  • Memorial Day is observed in Lowell for the first time.
  • On December 4, General Ulysses S. Grant visits Lowell.
  • In December, the Old Residents’ Historical Association is established.
  • A smallpox epidemic leads to the death of 178 Lowell residents.
  • The Central Savings Bank is organized.
  • The Fire Alarm Telegraph is established.
  • The Framingham Railroad is established.
  • On December 9, the Grand Duke Alexis of Russia visits Lowell.
  • The People’s Club is established.
  • The Pawtucket Bridge is completed.
  • The Water Works is established.
  • The first French-Canadian to be elected to public office in Lowell, Samuel P. Marin, is elected to the City Council.
  • A fire at Wamesit Mills causes $40,000 worth of damage.
  • The Grand Army of the Republic Hall is dedicated.
  • The Pawtucketville and Middlesex Village are annexed to Lowell.
  • The Kitson Machine Company is incorporated.
  • The Lowell and Andover Railroad opens.
  • The First Portuguese boardinghouse in Lowell opens.
  • Lowell holds its semi-centennial celebration.
  • On June 8, Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro visits Lowell.
  • The Reform Club is established.
  • The French Congregational Church is founded.
  • The Shaw Stocking Company is formed.
  • The J. C. Ayer Company is incorporated.
  • The Lowell Sun newspaper is established.
  • The Lowell Art Association formed.
  • The First annual regatta of Vesper Boat Club is held.
  • The Lowell District Telephone Company is formed.
  • Charles Cowley’s History of the County of Middlesex published in the Middlesex County Manual.
  • The Morning Mail newspaper is established.
  • Dr. Moses Greeley Parker invents telephone numbers in Lowell.
  • The United States Cord Company is established.
  • United Cartridge Company recruits Swedish workers.
  • The first Greek and Polish immigrants arrive in Lowell.
  • Charles Stuart Parnell visits Lowell.
  • Fire breaks out at Chase and Faulkner’s Mills.
  • Armenians began settling in Lowell.
  • The population of Lowell is 59,485.
  • St. Jean Baptiste procession organized in response to growing anti-French-Canadian sentiment in Lowell.
  • J. H. Guillet establishes the L’Abeille, the first Franco-American daily newspaper in the United States.
  • The Electric Light Company is formed.
  • The American Bolt Company is incorporated.
  • The first Irish mayor of Lowell, John J. Donovan, is elected.
  • On August 5, Central Bridge burns down.
  • The Citizens Newspaper Company is incorporated.
  • The St. Joseph’s School opens in Lowell, which is the first Franco-American school in the diocese.
  • Erie Telephone Company formed in Lowell.
  • The City Council vote to make City Library free, and to open a free reading room.
  • The Aiken Street and Central bridges are finished.
  • The New England Telephone and Telegraph Company is organized.
  • The Naturalization Club is founded.
  • Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church is constructed on Meadowcraft Street.
  • The Lowell Day Nursery is established.
  • The Taylor Street Bridge is completed
  • The first issue of L’Etoile, a French-Canadian newspaper, is printed.
  • On April 1, Lowell celebrates its semi – centennial of its incorporation as a city.
  • Lowell Co-operative Association is organized.
  • St. Jean Baptiste Church is founded.
  • L’Union St. Joseph builds headquarters at 266 Dutton Street.
  • Whittier Cotton Mills are incorporated.
  • Pilling Shoe Company is established.
  • Middlesex Safe Deposit and Trust Company is incorporated.
  • The Lowell and Dracut Street Railway Company is chartered.
  • The J. H. Guillet, Lowell’s first Franco-American lawyer, is admitted to bar.
  • The Criterion Knitting Company is incorporated.
  • The New Opera House opens.
  • On July 17, the Horse Railroad Stable burns with 117 horses and 31 cars inside.
  • On August 15, President Benjamin Harrison visits Lowell.
  • Thorndike Manufacturing Company is organized.
  • The Lowell Board of Trade is established.
  • The corner stones of new City Hall and Memorial Hall are laid.
  • An armory is built on Westford Street.
  • The Dracut Strike takes place.
  • The Lowell Trust Company is organized.
  • The Public Market and Packing Company is incorporated.
  • The First Russian Jews arrive in Lowell.
  • Typhoid epidemics break out in Lowell.
  • The Lowell General Hospital is established.
  • Greek immigrants begin working in the Lowell textile mills.
  • The Massachusetts Mohair Plush Company is incorporated.
  • A Grand reception for three Civil War generals, Nathaniel P. Banks, Daniel Sickles, and Benjamin Butler, is held.
  • The cornerstone of the Odd Fellows Building is laid.
  • The Post Office on the corner Appleton & Gorham is constructed.
  • The Swedish Methodist Church is established.
  • The Highland Club House is built.
  • On January 11, General Benjamin Butler dies and his body lies in state at Huntington Hall before being buried at Hildreth Cemetery.
  • The Saint Joseph’s Roman Catholic College for Boys is constructed on Merrimack Street.
  • On June 3, Memorial Hall is dedicated.
  • A French-Canadian High School for boys is established.
  • On October 14, the New Lowell City Hall is dedicated.

City Hall, Lowell, Mass, circa 1908
  • The Electric Trolley System in Lowell is established.
  • The Consumers’ Brewing Company is incorporated.
  • The Moody School is dedicated on Rogers Street.
  • The Associate Building is completed.
  • The Merrimack Croquet Company, Courier-Citizen Company and Fifield Tool Company is incorporated.
  • The L’Union Franco-Americaine is established.
  • The Courier-Citizen Corporation is founded.
  • Lowell State Teacher’s College is established.
  • The Lowell chapter of the Daughters of American Revolution is established.
  • The Middlesex Women’s Club is established.
  • The Vesper Country Club is established.
  • The Merrimack Woolen Mills Company is incorporated.
  • The new Lawrence Street Railroad bridge is completed.
  • The Grace Universalist Church is dedicated on Princeton Boulevard.
  • On March 2, the Merrimack River floods.

State Normal School, Lowell, Mass, circa 1908
  • In January, the Lowell Textile School opens.
  • The Moody Street Bridge and new County Court House are completed.
  • The Lowell Manufacturing Company is sold to Bigelow Carpet Company.
  • The O’Sullivan Rubber Company is established.
  • The Sons of Montefiore Synagogue is constructed on Howard Street.

Lowell, Mass Mills on the Merrimack River, circa 1900
  • The Anshe Sfard Synagogue is constructed on Howard Street.
  • The Ohabe Shalom Shul (“Litrac Shul”) is established by Lithuanian Jews at 63 Howard Street.
  • In May of 1902, the Lowell Historical Society is established.
  • The Lowell textile mills lock its workers out in anticipation of a strike.
  • A Typhoid epidemic breaks out in Lowell.
  • The Holy Trinity Polish Roman Catholic Church is established.
  • The St. Louis de France parish is established in Centralville.
  • St. Anthony’s church is constructed on Central Street.
  • The Greek Holy Trinity Church is constructed on Lewis Street.
  • The Notre Dame de Lourdes parish and grammar school is established in Highlands.
  • The Franco-American orphanage is established.

Mills on the Merrimack River, Lowell, Mass, circa 1908

Watch the video: Hard Times Cotton Mill Girls