RF-6D in Korea

RF-6D in Korea

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RF-6D in Korea

Here we see North American RF-6D-25-NT 44-84837 at a base in Korea. The pilot is crouched next a series of camera port in the rear fuselage of the aircraft.

Many thanks to Robert Bourlier for sending us this photograph.

15 April 1959

This McDonnell RF-101C-60-MC Voodoo, 56-055, is the sister ship of the airplane flown by Captain Edwards to set a World Speed Record, 15 April 1959. (Hervé Cariou)

15 April 1959: Captain George A. Edwards, Jr., United States Air Force, assigned to the 432nd Tactical Reconnaissance Wing, Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina, set a Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) World Record for Speed Over a Closed Circuit of 500 Kilometers (310.686 miles) Without Payload at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Captain Edwards flew a McDonnell RF-101C-60-MC Voodoo, serial number 56-054. His speed over the course averaged 1,313.677 kilometers per hour (816.281 miles per hour).¹

Captain Edwards told The Nashville Tennessean, “The flight was routine. The plane ran like a scalded dog.”

Nine days earlier, Colonel Edward H. Taylor flew another McDonnell RF-101C to a World Record for Speed Over a 1000 Kilometer Course of 1,126.62 kilometers per hour (700.05 miles per hour).²

McDonnell RF-101C-60-MC Voodoo 56-042, 15th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron. (U.S. Air Force)

The RF-101C Voodoo was an unarmed reconnaissance variant of the F-101C fighter. It was 69 feet, 4 inches (21.133 meters) long with a wingspan of 39 feet, 8 inches (12.090 meters). The height was 18 feet (5.486 meters). Empty weight for the RF-101C was 26,136 pounds (11,855 kilograms), with a maximum takeoff weight of 51,000 pounds (23,133 kilograms).

RF-101 on ramp with cameras. (United States Air Force 140114-F-DW547-001)

Two Pratt & Whitney J57-P-13 turbojet engines. The J57 was a two-spool axial-flow turbojet which had a 16-stage compressor (9 low- and 7 high-pressure stages), 8 combustors and a 3-stage turbine (1 high- and 2 low-pressure stages). The J57-P-13 was rated at 10,200 pounds of thrust (45.37 kilonewtons), and 15,800 pounds (70.28 kilonewtons) with afterburner.

The aircraft had a maximum speed of 1,012 miles per hour (1,629 kilometers per hour) at 35,000 feet (10,668 meters). The service ceiling was 55,300 feet (16,855 meters). The Voodoo could carry up to three drop tanks, giving a total fuel capacity of 3,150 gallons (11,294 liters) and a maximum range of 2,145 miles (3,452 kilometers).

The RF-101C carried six cameras in its nose. Two Fairchild KA-1s were aimed downward, with four KA-2s facing forward, down and to each side.

Beginning in 1954, McDonnell Aircraft Corporation built 807 F-101 Voodoos. 166 of these were the RF-101C variant. This was the only F-101 Voodoo variant to be used in combat during the Vietnam War. The RF-101C remained in service with the U.S. Air Force until 1979.

This McDonnell RF-101C-45-Voodoo, 56-0183, of the 20th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 432nd Tactical Reconnaissance Wing, is similar in appearance to the Voodoo flown by Captain Edwards, 15 April 1959. (Unattributed) Captain George A. Edwards, Jr., in the cockpit of his McDonnell RF-101C Voodoo, after setting an FAI World Record for Speed. (U.S. Air Force)

George Allie Edwards, Jr., was born in Nashville, Tennessee in 1929, the son of George Allie Edwards, an automobile agent, and Veriar (“Vera”) Lenier Edwards. When his father died, his mother, younger sister Jane, and George went to live with Mrs. Edwards’ parents at Crossville, Tennessee. He attended Cumberland High School and studied at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville. He took flight lessons at the age of 15 and accumulated more than 2,000 flight hours over the next six years.

In 1951, during the Korean War, Edwards entered the United States Air Force as an aviation cadet. He graduated from flight school at Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma, and was commissioned a second lieutenant. He was assigned to the 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing at Kimpo Air Base, South Korea. As a pilot of North American RF-51D Mustang and Lockheed RF-80 Shooting Star photographic reconnaissance airplanes, he flew 101 combat missions.

His next assignment was as a jet instructor at Bryan Air Force Base, Texas, and then an F-100 pilot with the 354th Tactical fighter Wing. he next served as chief of safety and standardization for the 432nd Tactical Reconnaissance Wing. It was during this assignment that he set the world record.

From 1959 to 1962, Edwards was an advisor to the West German Air Force. In recognition for his service, the chief of staff awarded him Luftwaffe pilot’s wings. For the next several years, he rotated through a series of training assignments, education and staff assignments.

Major George A. Edwards climbs to the cockpit of a McDonnell RF-4C Phantom II. (Lake Travis View)

During the Vietnam War, Lieutenant Colonel Edwards commanded the 19th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron which was equipped with the McDonnell RF-4C Phantom II reconnaissance variant. He also commanded a detachment of the 460th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing, and flew the Martin RB-57 Canberra. Edwards flew another 213 combat missions.

Colonel Edwards went on to command the 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing, (which he had previously served with during the Korean War), Bergstom Air Force Base, Texas as a brigadier general, was vice commander of 12th Air Force commander 314th Air Division, Osan Air Base, Republic of Korea, and also commanded the Korean Air Defense Sector. Edwards was promoted to Major General 1 August 1976, with an effective date of rank of 1 July 1973.

Major General George A. Edwards, Jr., United States Air Force.

During his career in the United States Air Force, Major General George A. Edwards, Jr., was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross with four oak leaf clusters (5 awards), the Bronze Star, Air Medal with 19 oak leaf clusters (20 awards), Joint Service Commendation Medal, Air Force Commendation Medal, Presidential Unit Citation emblem, Air Force Outstanding Unit Award ribbon with four oak leaf clusters (5 awards).

General Edwards retired from the Air Force 1 March 1984 after 33 years of service. As of 2015, the General and Mrs. Edwards live near Austin, Texas.

¹ FAI Record File Number 8858

² FAI Record File Number 8928

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Additional upgrades sustained the RF-4C into the 1990s: improved navigation equipment, the Pave Tack laser targeting system, a terrain following system, and the Tactical Electronic Reconnaissance (TEREC) system, a pod loaded with radar detection equipment for locating SAM sites. The TEREC system, although highly capable, moved the aircraft’s center of gravity aft, which may have contributed to several mishaps in the 1980s. Pilots and WSOs quickly became wary of the system. By the 1980s, the aircraft were ageing rapidly and becoming difficult to maintain, including the RF-4Cs that I flew in at Edwards AFB, California as a flight test engineer. We had quite a few Tactical Air Command (TAC) “hand-me-down” RF-4Cs the cameras in three of them had been removed to make room for flight test instrumentation to support USAF Test Pilot School training flights and other test activities, such as safety and photo chase. One aircraft even had my name stenciled under the rear canopy. TAC pushed many other RF-4Cs into Air National Guard units as well, where they picked up new missions that included drug interdiction and disaster relief. As unmanned reconnaissance aircraft began to debut, the RF-4Cs began heading for the boneyard at Davis-Monthan AFB, but the aircraft had a brief renaissance in 1991 during Desert Storm, after commanders realized they didn’t yet have enough unmanned aircraft to do the first part of the OODA loop. RF-4Cs stationed at Zweibrucken Air Base, Germany, about to head to the boneyard, were diverted to the Gulf instead. The RF-4Cs that I flew at Edwards have scattered and I don’t know where all of them are. Two are on display in Quartzsite, Arizona. Another Edwards RF-4C, referred to as ‘Balls Four,’ suffered a hydraulic failure in 1965 while assigned to a TAC unit the resulting hard landing punched one strut through a wing and damaged the other strut. The aircraft apparently never fully recovered from its landing incident and wound up at Eglin AFB, Florida as a test support aircraft and then later moved to Edwards, where it had a reputation as a hangar queen. RF-4C is now on display at Edwards and will eventually be moved into the Air Force Flight Test Museum when its new building is constructed. Support Hush-Kit with our high quality aviation themed merchandise here For more information on the RF-4C and some great pilot and WSO stories, please see my full article that first appeared in Aviation History last year. Eileen Bjorkman is a retired U.S. Air Force colonel and former flight test engineer who writes about aviation history. Her second book, Unforgotten in the Gulf of Tonkin: A Story of the U.S. Military’s Commitment to Leave No One Behind, will be released on September 1, 2020.


The heaviest [a] atomic nuclei are created in nuclear reactions that combine two other nuclei of unequal size [b] into one roughly, the more unequal the two nuclei in terms of mass, the greater the possibility that the two react. [16] The material made of the heavier nuclei is made into a target, which is then bombarded by the beam of lighter nuclei. Two nuclei can only fuse into one if they approach each other closely enough normally, nuclei (all positively charged) repel each other due to electrostatic repulsion. The strong interaction can overcome this repulsion but only within a very short distance from a nucleus beam nuclei are thus greatly accelerated in order to make such repulsion insignificant compared to the velocity of the beam nucleus. [17] Coming close alone is not enough for two nuclei to fuse: when two nuclei approach each other, they usually remain together for approximately 10 −20 seconds and then part ways (not necessarily in the same composition as before the reaction) rather than form a single nucleus. [17] [18] If fusion does occur, the temporary merger—termed a compound nucleus—is an excited state. To lose its excitation energy and reach a more stable state, a compound nucleus either fissions or ejects one or several neutrons, [c] which carry away the energy. This occurs in approximately 10 −16 seconds after the initial collision. [19] [d]

The beam passes through the target and reaches the next chamber, the separator if a new nucleus is produced, it is carried with this beam. [22] In the separator, the newly produced nucleus is separated from other nuclides (that of the original beam and any other reaction products) [e] and transferred to a surface-barrier detector, which stops the nucleus. The exact location of the upcoming impact on the detector is marked also marked are its energy and the time of the arrival. [22] The transfer takes about 10 −6 seconds in order to be detected, the nucleus must survive this long. [25] The nucleus is recorded again once its decay is registered, and the location, the energy, and the time of the decay are measured. [22]

Stability of a nucleus is provided by the strong interaction. However, its range is very short as nuclei become larger, its influence on the outermost nucleons (protons and neutrons) weakens. At the same time, the nucleus is torn apart by electrostatic repulsion between protons, as it has unlimited range. [26] Nuclei of the heaviest elements are thus theoretically predicted [27] and have so far been observed [28] to primarily decay via decay modes that are caused by such repulsion: alpha decay and spontaneous fission [f] these modes are predominant for nuclei of superheavy elements. Alpha decays are registered by the emitted alpha particles, and the decay products are easy to determine before the actual decay if such a decay or a series of consecutive decays produces a known nucleus, the original product of a reaction can be determined arithmetically. [g] Spontaneous fission, however, produces various nuclei as products, so the original nuclide cannot be determined from its daughters. [h]

The information available to physicists aiming to synthesize one of the heaviest elements is thus the information collected at the detectors: location, energy, and time of arrival of a particle to the detector, and those of its decay. The physicists analyze this data and seek to conclude that it was indeed caused by a new element and could not have been caused by a different nuclide than the one claimed. Often, provided data is insufficient for a conclusion that a new element was definitely created and there is no other explanation for the observed effects errors in interpreting data have been made. [i]

Discovery Edit

Rutherfordium was reportedly first detected in 1964 at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research at Dubna (then in the Soviet Union). Researchers there bombarded a plutonium-242 target with neon-22 ions and separated the reaction products by gradient thermochromatography after conversion to chlorides by interaction with ZrCl4. The team identified spontaneous fission activity contained within a volatile chloride portraying eka-hafnium properties. Although a half-life was not accurately determined, later calculations indicated that the product was most likely rutherfordium-259 (abbreviated as 259 Rf in standard notation): [40]

In 1969, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley conclusively synthesized the element by bombarding a californium-249 target with carbon-12 ions and measured the alpha decay of 257 Rf, correlated with the daughter decay of nobelium-253: [41]

The American synthesis was independently confirmed in 1973 and secured the identification of rutherfordium as the parent by the observation of K-alpha X-rays in the elemental signature of the 257 Rf decay product, nobelium-253. [42]

Naming controversy Edit

The Russian scientists proposed the name kurchatovium and the American scientists suggested the name rutherfordium for the new element. [43] In 1992, the IUPAC/IUPAP Transfermium Working Group (TWG) assessed the claims of discovery and concluded that both teams provided contemporaneous evidence to the synthesis of element 104 and that credit should be shared between the two groups. [40]

The American group wrote a scathing response to the findings of the TWG, stating that they had given too much emphasis on the results from the Dubna group. In particular they pointed out that the Russian group had altered the details of their claims several times over a period of 20 years, a fact that the Russian team does not deny. They also stressed that the TWG had given too much credence to the chemistry experiments performed by the Russians and accused the TWG of not having appropriately qualified personnel on the committee. The TWG responded by saying that this was not the case and having assessed each point raised by the American group said that they found no reason to alter their conclusion regarding priority of discovery. [44] The IUPAC finally used the name suggested by the American team (rutherfordium). [45]

As a consequence of the initial competing claims of discovery, an element naming controversy arose. Since the Soviets claimed to have first detected the new element they suggested the name kurchatovium (Ku) in honor of Igor Kurchatov (1903–1960), former head of Soviet nuclear research. This name had been used in books of the Soviet Bloc as the official name of the element. The Americans, however, proposed rutherfordium (Rf) for the new element to honor Ernest Rutherford, who is known as the "father" of nuclear physics. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) adopted unnilquadium (Unq) as a temporary, systematic element name, derived from the Latin names for digits 1, 0, and 4. In 1994, IUPAC suggested the name dubnium (Db) to be used since rutherfordium was suggested for element 106 and IUPAC felt that the Dubna team should be recognized for their contributions. However, there was still a dispute over the names of elements 104–107. In 1997 the teams involved resolved the dispute and adopted the current name rutherfordium. The name dubnium was given to element 105 at the same time. [45]

Isotope half-lives and discovery years
mode [7]
253 Rf 48 μs α, SF 1994 204 Pb( 50 Ti,n) [46]
254 Rf 23 μs SF 1994 206 Pb( 50 Ti,2n) [46]
255 Rf 2.3 s ε?, α, SF 1974 207 Pb( 50 Ti,2n) [47]
256 Rf 6.4 ms α, SF 1974 208 Pb( 50 Ti,2n) [47]
257 Rf 4.7 s ε, α, SF 1969 249 Cf( 12 C,4n) [41]
257m Rf 4.1 s ε, α, SF 1969 249 Cf( 12 C,4n) [41]
258 Rf 14.7 ms α, SF 1969 249 Cf( 13 C,4n) [41]
259 Rf 3.2 s α, SF 1969 249 Cf( 13 C,3n) [41]
259m Rf 2.5 s ε 1969 249 Cf( 13 C,3n) [41]
260 Rf 21 ms α, SF 1969 248 Cm( 16 O,4n) [40]
261 Rf 78 s α, SF 1970 248 Cm( 18 O,5n) [48]
261m Rf 4 s ε, α, SF 2001 244 Pu( 22 Ne,5n) [49]
262 Rf 2.3 s α, SF 1996 244 Pu( 22 Ne,4n) [50]
263 Rf 15 min α, SF 1999 263 Db(
e −
e ) [51]
263m Rf ? 8 s α, SF 1999 263 Db(
e −
e ) [51]
265 Rf 1.1 min [8] SF 2010 269 Sg(—,α) [52]
266 Rf 23 s? SF 2007? 266 Db(
e −
e )? [53] [54]
267 Rf 1.3 h SF 2004 271 Sg(—,α) [55]
268 Rf 1.4 s? SF 2004? 268 Db(
e −
e )? [54] [56]
270 Rf 20 ms? [57] SF 2010? 270 Db(
e −
e )? [58]

Rutherfordium has no stable or naturally occurring isotopes. Several radioactive isotopes have been synthesized in the laboratory, either by fusing two atoms or by observing the decay of heavier elements. Sixteen different isotopes have been reported with atomic masses from 253 to 270 (with the exceptions of 264 and 269). Most of these decay predominantly through spontaneous fission pathways. [7] [59]

Stability and half-lives Edit

Out of isotopes whose half-lives are known, the lighter isotopes usually have shorter half-lives half-lives of under 50 μs for 253 Rf and 254 Rf were observed. 256 Rf, 258 Rf, 260 Rf are more stable at around 10 ms, 255 Rf, 257 Rf, 259 Rf, and 262 Rf live between 1 and 5 seconds, and 261 Rf, 265 Rf, and 263 Rf are more stable, at around 1.1, 1.5, and 10 minutes respectively. The heaviest isotopes are the most stable, with 267 Rf having a measured half-life of about 1.3 hours. [7]

The lightest isotopes were synthesized by direct fusion between two lighter nuclei and as decay products. The heaviest isotope produced by direct fusion is 262 Rf heavier isotopes have only been observed as decay products of elements with larger atomic numbers. The heavy isotopes 266 Rf and 268 Rf have also been reported as electron capture daughters of the dubnium isotopes 266 Db and 268 Db, but have short half-lives to spontaneous fission. It seems likely that the same is true of 270 Rf, a likely daughter of 270 Db. [58] These three isotopes remain unconfirmed.

In 1999, American scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, announced that they had succeeded in synthesizing three atoms of 293 Og. [60] These parent nuclei were reported to have successively emitted seven alpha particles to form 265 Rf nuclei, but their claim was retracted in 2001. [61] This isotope was later discovered in 2010 as the final product in the decay chain of 285 Fl. [8] [52]

Very few properties of rutherfordium or its compounds have been measured this is due to its extremely limited and expensive production [16] and the fact that rutherfordium (and its parents) decays very quickly. A few singular chemistry-related properties have been measured, but properties of rutherfordium metal remain unknown and only predictions are available.

Chemical Edit

Rutherfordium is the first transactinide element and the second member of the 6d series of transition metals. Calculations on its ionization potentials, atomic radius, as well as radii, orbital energies, and ground levels of its ionized states are similar to that of hafnium and very different from that of lead. Therefore, it was concluded that rutherfordium's basic properties will resemble those of other group 4 elements, below titanium, zirconium, and hafnium. [51] [62] Some of its properties were determined by gas-phase experiments and aqueous chemistry. The oxidation state +4 is the only stable state for the latter two elements and therefore rutherfordium should also exhibit a stable +4 state. [62] In addition, rutherfordium is also expected to be able to form a less stable +3 state. [2] The standard reduction potential of the Rf 4+ /Rf couple is predicted to be higher than −1.7 V. [5]

Initial predictions of the chemical properties of rutherfordium were based on calculations which indicated that the relativistic effects on the electron shell might be strong enough that the 7p orbitals would have a lower energy level than the 6d orbitals, giving it a valence electron configuration of 6d 1 7s 2 7p 1 or even 7s 2 7p 2 , therefore making the element behave more like lead than hafnium. With better calculation methods and experimental studies of the chemical properties of rutherfordium compounds it could be shown that this does not happen and that rutherfordium instead behaves like the rest of the group 4 elements. [2] [62] Later it was shown in ab initio calculations with the high level of accuracy [63] [64] [65] that the Rf atom has the ground state with the 6d 2 7s 2 valence configuration and the low-lying excited 6d 1 7s 2 7p 1 state with the excitation energy of only 0.3–0.5 eV.

In an analogous manner to zirconium and hafnium, rutherfordium is projected to form a very stable, refractory oxide, RfO2. It reacts with halogens to form tetrahalides, RfX4, which hydrolyze on contact with water to form oxyhalides RfOX2. The tetrahalides are volatile solids existing as monomeric tetrahedral molecules in the vapor phase. [62]

In the aqueous phase, the Rf 4+ ion hydrolyzes less than titanium(IV) and to a similar extent as zirconium and hafnium, thus resulting in the RfO 2+ ion. Treatment of the halides with halide ions promotes the formation of complex ions. The use of chloride and bromide ions produces the hexahalide complexes RfCl 2−
6 and RfBr 2−
6 . For the fluoride complexes, zirconium and hafnium tend to form hepta- and octa- complexes. Thus, for the larger rutherfordium ion, the complexes RfF 2−
6 , RfF 3−
7 and RfF 4−
8 are possible. [62]

Physical and atomic Edit

Rutherfordium is expected to be a solid under normal conditions and assume a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure ( c /a = 1.61), similar to its lighter congener hafnium. [6] It should be a heavy metal with a density of around 17 g/cm 3 . [3] [4] The atomic radius for rutherfordium is expected to be around 150 pm. Due to the relativistic stabilization of the 7s orbital and destabilization of the 6d orbital, the Rf + and Rf 2+ ions are predicted to give up 6d electrons instead of 7s electrons, which is the opposite of the behavior of its lighter homologues. [2] When under high pressure (variously calculated as 72 or

50 GPa), rutherfordium is expected to transition to a body-centered cubic crystal structure hafnium transforms to this structure at 71±1 GPa, but has an intermediate ω structure that it transforms to at 38±8 GPa that should be lacking for rutherfordium. [66]

Summary of compounds and complex ions
Formula Names
RfCl4 rutherfordium tetrachloride, rutherfordium(IV) chloride
RfBr4 rutherfordium tetrabromide, rutherfordium(IV) bromide
RfOCl2 rutherfordium oxychloride, rutherfordyl(IV) chloride,
rutherfordium(IV) dichloride oxide
[RfCl6] 2− hexachlororutherfordate(IV)
[RfF6] 2− hexafluororutherfordate(IV)
K2[RfCl6] potassium hexachlororutherfordate(IV)

Gas phase Edit

Early work on the study of the chemistry of rutherfordium focused on gas thermochromatography and measurement of relative deposition temperature adsorption curves. The initial work was carried out at Dubna in an attempt to reaffirm their discovery of the element. Recent work is more reliable regarding the identification of the parent rutherfordium radioisotopes. The isotope 261m Rf has been used for these studies, [62] though the long-lived isotope 267 Rf (produced in the decay chain of 291 Lv, 287 Fl, and 283 Cn) may be advantageous for future experiments. [67] The experiments relied on the expectation that rutherfordium would begin the new 6d series of elements and should therefore form a volatile tetrachloride due to the tetrahedral nature of the molecule. [62] [68] [69] Rutherfordium(IV) chloride is more volatile than its lighter homologue hafnium(IV) chloride (HfCl4) because its bonds are more covalent. [2]

A series of experiments confirmed that rutherfordium behaves as a typical member of group 4, forming a tetravalent chloride (RfCl4) and bromide (RfBr4) as well as an oxychloride (RfOCl2). A decreased volatility was observed for RfCl
4 when potassium chloride is provided as the solid phase instead of gas, highly indicative of the formation of nonvolatile K
2 RfCl
6 mixed salt. [51] [62] [70]

Aqueous phase Edit

Rutherfordium is expected to have the electron configuration [Rn]5f 14 6d 2 7s 2 and therefore behave as the heavier homologue of hafnium in group 4 of the periodic table. It should therefore readily form a hydrated Rf 4+ ion in strong acid solution and should readily form complexes in hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic or hydrofluoric acid solutions. [62]

The most conclusive aqueous chemistry studies of rutherfordium have been performed by the Japanese team at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute using the isotope 261m Rf. Extraction experiments from hydrochloric acid solutions using isotopes of rutherfordium, hafnium, zirconium, as well as the pseudo-group 4 element thorium have proved a non-actinide behavior for rutherfordium. A comparison with its lighter homologues placed rutherfordium firmly in group 4 and indicated the formation of a hexachlororutherfordate complex in chloride solutions, in a manner similar to hafnium and zirconium. [62] [71]

Very similar results were observed in hydrofluoric acid solutions. Differences in the extraction curves were interpreted as a weaker affinity for fluoride ion and the formation of the hexafluororutherfordate ion, whereas hafnium and zirconium ions complex seven or eight fluoride ions at the concentrations used: [62]

  1. ^ In nuclear physics, an element is called heavy if its atomic number is high lead (element 82) is one example of such a heavy element. The term "superheavy elements" typically refers to elements with atomic number greater than 103 (although there are other definitions, such as atomic number greater than 100[11] or 112 [12] sometimes, the term is presented an equivalent to the term "transactinide", which puts an upper limit before the beginning of the hypothetical superactinide series). [13] Terms "heavy isotopes" (of a given element) and "heavy nuclei" mean what could be understood in the common language—isotopes of high mass (for the given element) and nuclei of high mass, respectively.
  2. ^ In 2009, a team at JINR led by Oganessian published results of their attempt to create hassium in a symmetric 136 Xe + 136 Xe reaction. They failed to observe a single atom in such a reaction, putting the upper limit on the cross section, the measure of probability of a nuclear reaction, as 2.5 pb. [14] In comparison, the reaction that resulted in hassium discovery, 208 Pb + 58 Fe, had a cross section of
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  • Audi, G. Kondev, F. G. Wang, M. et al. (2017). "The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties". Chinese Physics C. 41 (3): 030001. Bibcode:2017ChPhC..41c0001A. doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030001.
  • Beiser, A. (2003). Concepts of modern physics (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN978-0-07-244848-1 . OCLC48965418. CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
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  • Zagrebaev, V. Karpov, A. Greiner, W. (2013). "Future of superheavy element research: Which nuclei could be synthesized within the next few years?". Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 420 (1): 012001. arXiv: 1207.5700 . Bibcode:2013JPhCS.420a2001Z. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/420/1/012001. ISSN1742-6588. S2CID55434734.

180 ms 9.9% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::gsub 160 ms 8.8% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::callParserFunction 120 ms 6.6% dataWrapper 60 ms 3.3% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getAllExpandedArguments 40 ms 2.2% Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getEntity 40 ms 2.2% tostring 20 ms 1.1% 20 ms 1.1% [others] 140 ms 7.7% Number of Wikibase entities loaded: 1/400 -->

Fearing unrest, North Korea 'erased' Gwangju Uprising history, defector says

May 18 (UPI) -- North Korea initially highlighted the Gwangju Uprising in state media, but then scrubbed the incident from its historical texts, a North Korean defector in the South said.

Thae Yong-ho, a former senior diplomat with the North Korean Embassy in London, said Monday, on the eve of the 41st anniversary of the uprising, that the spirit of the movement that began May 18, 1980, would "liberate the North Korean people" with its message of "democracy and freedom," the Dong-A Ilbo and South Korean network MBN reported.

Thae said North Korean newspapers extensively covered the pro-democracy movement in Gwangju at the time. The Rodong Sinmun described the uprising as "historic," Thae said.

The defector said he was a first-year student at Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies in May 1980, when he heard about the events unfolding in Gwangju.

North Korean television showed South Korean civilians armed with rifles running through the city.

During college lectures, Thae said his instructors claimed the uprising would "soon spread throughout the South."

"However, the May 18 Democratization Movement was suppressed on May 27," Thae wrote on Facebook. "The North Korean media reported Chun Doo-hwan's fascist military forces crushed the uprising."

After the crackdown in the South, Pyongyang's newspapers continued to express support for democratic activists. North Korea even produced a movie about the pro-democracy movement. The regime stopped mentioning Gwangju in official texts after the inauguration of progressive South Korean President Kim Dae-jung, however, Thae said.

"The authorities seem to have realized that the May 18 Democratization Movement in South Korea, which they thought would be an "asset" to the North Korean regime, was rather a 'liability' if it became known to the North Korean people," Thae said.

Chun, who reportedly ordered the massacre of civilians in 1980 after staging a coup and imposing martial law, has accused North Korean military forces of participating in the protests.

Chun's statement is false, South Korean investigator Heo Jang-hwan has said, according to the Korea Times.

Customer Reviews

Love it

Excellent narrative and storytelling on scantly covered periods of Korea history. KUDOS. Keep up the good work!

Does not stay on point

Tried to listen but only got through two episodes. The information is very general, lifted from Wikipedia or google. There’s no clear outline he’s following per episode, just information thrown out there, almost randomly. Lots of filler, rambling and very little information for the amount of time spoken.

Very Good

This is very good and I can tell the podcaster has a love for Korean History. However this podcast doesn’t start at the beginning of Korean History but with the beginning of the Choe Military government during the Goryeo Dynasty.

Words in This Story

peninsula n. a piece of land surrounded by water on most sides and connected to a larger piece of land

atrocity – n. a very cruel or terrible act or action usually involving death

deliverv. to take something to a person or place to do what you say

elderly – n. older adults

negative – adj. showing refusal or denial

commit – v. to carry out to promise

reconciliation – n. the act of causing two people or groups to become friendly again after an argument or disagreement

Keysight Technologies Announces RF, Microwave Software Donation to South Korea’s Chungnam National University

SANTA ROSA, Calif.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Keysight Technologies, Inc. (NYSE:KEYS) today announced its donation of Keysight EDA software to Chungnam National University (CNU) in Daejeon, South Korea, as part of the Keysight EEsof EDA University Educational Support Program. This is the third software donation this year, following earlier donations to South Korea’s Sogang and Dongguk Universities, and is intended to help CNU foster well-rounded electronics engineering experts.

“We are proud to partner with top South Korean universities through our Keysight EEsof EDA software donation program,” said Duk-Kwon Yoon, Keysight’s country general manager in South Korea. “Our software will help CNU’s research engineers and students acquire the skills they need to positively impact industry and advance quickly in their future research.”

Keysight EDA’s donation to CNU was formally announced during a ceremony at CNU on Aug. 18. The donation comprises three licenses of Keysight EMPro 3-D electromagnetic (EM) simulation and analysis software. In return for the donation, CNU agrees to develop RF and microwave research projects (e.g., advanced RF microwave components) using circuit-3D EM co-simulation. CNU will also use the software for academic purposes, and to create technical papers, examples and webcasts.

CNU recently released a microwave circuit design book using Keysight EDA’s Advanced Design System software. The book was written by Dr. Kyung-Whan Yeom, professor in CNU’s department of radio science and engineering and a Keysight Certified Expert. The book is a compilation of Dr. Yeom’s studies and insights from his 20 years of expertise using ADS design software.

“CNU is among the best RF and microwave research universities in South Korea,” said Sang-Chul Jung, president of CNU. “Partnering with a company like Keysight is key to maintaining our leading position, along with having the best teachers and facilities. CNU looks forward to developing RF and microwave talent using the industry’s leading Keysight EDA software and hardware tools.”

“Keysight has played a pivotal role in advancing technology and we are excited to see this tradition continue with CNU,” said Jun Chie, general manager and vice president of Asia-Pacific Field Operations, Keysight. “RF and microwave research is the foundation of South Korea's leadership in commercial communication. Together, Keysight and CNU will definitely strengthen that foundation.”

Assorted References

The following is a treatment of North Korea since the Korean War. For a discussion of the earlier history of the peninsula, see Korea.

…in East Asia roughly demarcates North Korea and South Korea. The line was chosen by U.S. military planners at the Potsdam Conference (July 1945) near the end of World War II as an army boundary, north of which the U.S.S.R. was to accept the surrender of the Japanese forces in…

…1994 political agreement in which North Korea agreed to suspend its nuclear power program in return for increased energy aid from the United States. The Agreed Framework sought to replace North Korea’s nuclear power program with U.S-supplied light-water reactors, which are more resistant to nuclear proliferation. Despite some success with…

…the bellicose tendencies of Iran, North Korea, and Iraq in the early 21st century. The phrase was coined by Canadian-born U.S. presidential speechwriter David Frum and presidential aide Michael Gerson for use by U.S. President George W. Bush in his 2002 State of the Union address, when he asserted that

…and on September 9 the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea was proclaimed, with the capital at P’yŏngyang. On October 12 the U.S.S.R. recognized this state as the only lawful government in Korea.

Relations with

…role in 1994, negotiating with North Korea to end nuclear weapons development there, with Haiti to effect a peaceful transfer of power, and with Bosnian Serbs and Muslims to broker a short-lived cease-fire. His efforts on behalf of international peace and his highly visible participation in building homes for the…

Tensions between South Korea and the North remained high after the Korean War, exacerbated by such incidents as the assassination attempt on Park Chung-Hee by North Korean commandos in 1968, the bombing in Rangoon in 1983, and the North’s destruction by time bomb of…

Modern History of Tuberculosis in Korea

Tuberculosis has been a major public health threat in modern Korea. A few reports from the mid-1940s have demonstrated a high prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis infections. The high disease burden urged the newly established government to place a high priority on tuberculosis control. The government led a nationwide effort to control tuberculosis by building dedicated hospitals, conducting mass screening, providing technical and material support for microbiological diagnosis, administering Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination, and improving appropriate antibiotic treatment through public health centers. Such concerted efforts resulted in a gradual decrease in the disease burden of tuberculosis, as demonstrated by National Tuberculosis Prevalence Surveys and notifiable disease statistics. While great progress has been made, new challenges - including an aging population, outbreaks in schools and healthcare facilities, and migration from high-prevalence countries - lie ahead. Here, we review the modern history of tuberculosis in Korea, focusing on epidemiology and public health policies.

Keywords: Control Epidemiology History Public health Tuberculosis.

Copyright © 2019 by The Korean Society of Infectious Diseases, Korean Society for Antimicrobial Therapy, and The Korean Society for AIDS.

Watch the video: Место где есть онлайн - Return Hard. RF ONLINE. Indonesia


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