Albatros Dr.II

Albatros Dr.II


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Albatros Dr.II

The Albatros Dr.II was the second triplane design produced by Albatros, and like the Dr.I didn't enter production.

The Dr.I had been produced during 1917 by fitting a triplane wing to the fuselage of the D.V fighter. A similar approach was taken in 1918 and the Dr.II was produced by fitting a triplane wing to a fuselage heavily based on that of the D.X. This was a simplified fuselage, with flat sides and a flat base, but did use the standard Albatros construction method, with a wooden framework and plywood covering.

The Dr.II used a different wing to the Dr.I. The lower wing was level with the base of the fuselage, the middle wing with the top of the fuselage and the top wing an equal distance above the fuselage. The wings were equal chord and equal span and were staggered. They were connected by wide I struts and all thre wings carried ailerons. The radiators were mounted between the upper and middle wings.

Engine: Benz IVb V-8
Power: 195hp
Span: 32ft 9 3/4in
Length: 20ft 3 1/4in
Height: 10ft 11 1/2in
Empty weight: 1,487lb
Loaded weight: 2,013lb


The Albatros D.II appeared on the Western Front in the late summer of 1916. Like its predecessor the D,I, it was a streamlined design featuring a rigid plywood fuselage of monocoque construction. The wings were covered with doped fabric, but the fixed tail surfaces were, like the fuselage, plywood, while the control surfaces were welded steel tube frames covered with fabric. The undercarriage was also of steel tube construction, with a V-type chassis fixed to the fuselage by means of sockets and sprung through the wheels with rubber shock cord.

Second in the series of Albatros ‘D’ fighters, the D.II was designed specifically to address a shortcoming of the successful D.I, namely that the upper wing obscured the pilot’s forward field of vision due to its position in relation to the fuselage. This was remedied in the D.II by retaining the semi-circular cut-out in the upper wing, but repositioning the wing and lowering it so that it was closer to the fuselage. The trestle-type center-section cabane was deleted and replaced by two sets of splayed out “N” center section struts. The first D.II models retained the cumbersome “cheek” radiator system of the D.I, but later models featured an aerofoil-shaped Teeves & Braun radiator system installed in the starboard side of the upper wing. This noticeably streamlined the aircraft and significantly reduced drag.

The Albatros D.II was assigned to Jasta 2, and it was in one of these machines, No. 491/16, that Manfred von Richtofen claimed his first victory, a French Farman S.II on September 17, 1916. By November 1916 twenty-eight D.II’s were operating on the Western Front by January 1917, their numbers had climbed to 214. Meanwhile the D.III had appeared in late 1916, but it was not until the middle of 1917 that the D.III replaced the D.II in significant numbers. Demand for Albatros fighters was so great that in order to meet it, the firm of Luft-Verkehrs Gesellschaft (LVG) was also licensed to build the aircraft under the designation L.V.G. D.I. A total of 275 D.II’s were built, 75 of them by LVG.


  • Dining Room: Area
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  • Main House Sq. Ft.: 987
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  • Directions: Cortaro/Hartman N to Wood Owl E to Albatross N to property.
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  • Lot Acres: 0.11
  • Lot Dimensions: 41 x 99 x 52 x 101
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  • Elementary School: Degrazia
  • Middle School: Tortolita
  • High School: Mountain View
  • School District: Marana
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  • Taxes: 1197.00
  • Tax Year: 2006
  • Area: Northwest
  • Direction: N
  • Country: USA
  • Section: 24
  • Township: 12
  • Municipality/Zoning: Pima County - CR4
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IPMS/USA Reviews

I am tempted to re-title this book "Albatros D.I - D.Va: Legendary Polish Fighter" because it really takes a more Eastern European perspective on this iconic family of aircraft. This is refreshing because too often books on WWI German aircraft present a Western Front perspective. The Eastern Front was a different theater with differing imperatives, challenges and solutions. Complicating the war effort was the polyglot force that made up the Austrian-Hungarian military forces, of which Poland was a part.

The book takes a narrative approach to the subject, being more about the stories than technical specifications while still including the latter. It covers all of the Albatros fighters including: D.1, D.II, D.III, D.III Oeffag, D.V, D.Va, Dr.II and W.4. But the emphasis really is on the most successful aircraft - the D.III (including the Oeffag built version) and the D.V. The chapter organization is as follows:

  • Introduction
  • The Graceful Fighter
  • Naval Aviation
  • Better Than the Original
  • Albatros D.III Design
  • The Albatros in Combat
  • In the Polish Air Force
  • The Albatros D.III (Oef) in the Polish Air Force
  • Colors and Markings
  • Polish Albatros Colors
  • Appendices
  • Bibliography

One emphasis of this volume is the importance that the Albatros played in the Great War and the fact that it faded in history thanks to Fokker's better marketing interesting premise even if it is not true. The chapter "Albatros in Combat" provides some interesting statistics:

  • The number of fighter aircraft manufactured in 1916-1918 on all sides by type
  • Albatros killers (Aces)
  • The number of Albatros by type at the front
  • Eastern Front Albatros aces

Where this book differs from others that I have read is the emphasis on the D.III Oeffag and its use by Poland. This emphasis starts with "Better than the Original" which chronicles the Oeffag built aircraft, notable the D.III, crediting Oeffag with many design improvements over the Albatros built variant. These improvements significantly improved the effectiveness of an already effective aircraft and allowed it to soldier on into the postwar period. Later chapters discuss Polish use of Albatros fighters in the Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1921. Highlighted is the 7 th Escadrille, the "Kosciuszko" Squadron, which included a good number of American volunteers who fought the Bolsheviks. The squadron name later conveyed to the famous 303 squadron of Polish volunteers during WWII.

This book is also a good visual reference for the WWI model. While the order of the photos is a bit confusing, Kagero provides a lot of unique photos from the Eastern Front including the post war Polish service. It also provides a description of the color and markings of the family of aircraft. But the best references are in the appendices including several pages of period drawings of the Albatros III and color profiles of Albatros from D.I to D.V. The best ones are the profiles of the aircraft from the Eastern Front and the post war period. I have included a scan of the profile of a D.III (Oef) from the back cover and I have to say the swirl camouflage is very eye-catching

This book really grew on me and I found it more compelling as I read. So if you have numerous references on Albatros aircraft, you might want to consider this volume and the fresh perspective it brings to the aircraft.

A thank-you goes out to Kagero and IPMS for the chance to review this publication.


IPMS/USA Reviews

Osprey Publishing provides many different lines of aircraft information books for the enthusiast. These include the Aces series, the Elite series, the Dual series, and others. This latest series, Air Vanguard, seems to combine the best of the other series and really seems to be aimed at the modeler as well as the aviation enthusiast.

The World War I timeframe resulted in an unbelievable amount of progress in aviation. The aircraft of this book entered the fight just 13 years after the Wright Brothers' first flight. During 1916, the Albatros design team seemed to be working on several designs at the same time. The first D.I's entered the Western Front in September, 1916. These were accompanied by a prototype of the D.II. These designs featured many aerodynamic improvements from previous aircraft in production, either with the Allies or the Germans. These included water-cooled engines, solid streamlined fuselages, and aerodynamic attention to struts, etc. The production models of the D.II entered service only two months ahead of the improved D.III model. During the latter part of 1916, Albatros fighters allowed the Germans to achieve a bit of air superiority and provided a learning experience to many of their well-known aces, such as Boelcke and von Richthofen. The Albatros fighters allowed the Germans to score decisive victories during "Bloody April".

The book consists of 64 pages of great information. Two full color three-view drawings are provided, along with four color profiles, a page of color detail drawings, and a fold-out rear inside cover cut-away drawing of the D.I. Great detail black and white photos are included on most pages. The individual chapters include Design and Development, Technical Specifications, Operational History, and Conclusion. An Index and Bibliography, which includes lots of other Osprey books, are also included. The Tech Spec chapter includes sub-chapters on Factory Finishes and Idiosyncrasies, and on Staffel Finishes. Talk about throwing fresh meat to the modeler.

As a modeler, this book would probably provide all the information that I need to make an accurate model of a D.I or D.II. As an aviation enthusiast, I really appreciated the details of the development and operation of the aircraft.

The book is well recommended as described above. A big thank you to Osprey for the sample, and to IPMS/USA for assigning it to me.


Grumman HU-16 Albatross: The U.S. Military's Amphibious Workhorse

When it is a U.S. military aircraft𠅊nd in this case, workhorse could aptly describe the Grumman HU-16 Albatross, a versatile amphibious utility aircraft that was designed so that it could also operate in snow and ice conditions with skis. It had a crew of three or four and could carry up to ten passengers.

The large twin-radial engine amphibious flying boat was developed after the Second World War for the U.S. Navy and the first prototype flew in October 1947. Gruman had previous experience developing amphibious aircraft, such as the Gruman JSF-6 Duck, and created essentially a larger version of the flying boat concept.

The United States Air Force also saw a potential and ordered a quantity of the aircraft, designated the SA-16As, for air-sea rescue operations.

The Grumman HU-16 Albatross was powered by two Wright R-1820s engines, which each provided 1,425 horsepower giving the plane a maximum speed of 250 mph. It had a range of 1,650 miles and a ceiling of 21,500 feet.

During the Korean War, the SA-16 was used for combat rescue and gained a reputation as a rugged and reliable seaworthy aircraft. In total Grumman delivered 297 A models to the Air Force and most saw use with the Air Rescue Service, which was first established in 1946 before being re-designated as the Air Force&aposs Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service (ARRS) in 1966.

The designation of the airplane was changed to HU-16 in 1962.

In the meantime, Grumman developed an improved version that increased the wingspan by 16 and a half feet and installed larger aileron and tail surfaces. Many of the A models were later converted to this B configuration.

The HU-16 saw extensive combat service during the Vietnam War when it was used by the Air Force&aposs ARRS, while the U.S. Navy employed modified HU-16C/D as search and rescue (SR) aircraft from coastal naval air stations including bases in Guam and Cuba. The HU-16 was also operated by the United States Coast Guard as a coastal and long-range open ocean SAR aircraft until it was supplanted by the newer HU-25 Guardian and HC-130 Hercules aircraft.

The Albatross was also an example of a military-designed aircraft that made a transition to the civilian world. In the mid-1960s the U.S. Department of the Interior used a small number of the flying boats in goodwill flights in the Pacific. The aircraft proved perfect when the U.S. government helped establish the Trust Territory Airlines to serve the islands of Micronesia before adequate runways were built on the islands.

In a strange twist of fate, the Albatross was also crucial in developing Row 44&aposs satellite-based, in-flight Wi-Fi system that is now commonly used on modern commercial airliners. The company&aposs founder, Gregg Fialcowitz, had reportedly become frustrated by the lack of Internet during his frequent business travel and saw the potential to provide a satellite delivery of the Internet to aircraft. He worked with David Cummings, a corporate pilot, who happened to have restored a Grumman HU-16B, which was used in the testing and development of the system that is now widely used on commercial aircraft.


Albatros D.II

The Albatros D.II should replace the rapidly developing and built Albatros D.I as a successor model. With some changes, the aircraft was produced from September 1916 and remained until mid-1917 the standard fighter aircraft of the German armed forces.

Development and construction:

Compared to the previous model, there were only two major changes. The first concerned the outward-spread center braces, which were used instead of the central bracing tower.

The second change was in the side cooler Windhoff, which was replaced by a Teeves & Braun wing cooler. This reduced the risk that the crash of the aircraft would occur if the cooler hit.

From September 1916 production could begin, whereby the air traffic society A.G. under license the aircraft for the German army and the Oesterreichische Flugzeugfabrik AG for the k.u.k. Troops produced.

Use in the First World War:

From October 1916, the Jagdstaffel 2 and the newly established Jagdstaffel 11 were equipped with the Albatros D.II aircraft. These should gradually replace the already used Fokker D.II aircraft and Halberstadt aircraft.

Due to the large number of aircraft produced, the Albatros D.II remained the standard fighter aircraft of the German army until mid-1917 and was able to regain air sovereignty over the western front for several months.

With the introduction of the Albatros D.III early 1917 and the Albatros D.II were gradually withdrawn from the front, but some machines remained until the end of the war in use.

Technical specifications:

Designation: Albatros D.II
Country: German Empire
Typ: Fighter plane
Length: 7,33 meters
Span: 8,5 meters
Height: 2,64 meters
Mass: 637kg empty
Crew: Max. 1
Engine: Water-cooled 6-cylinder inline engine Mercedes D III with 160hp
Maximum speed: 175 km/h
Reach: 230 kilometers
Armament: 2 x synchronized machine guns 7,92 mm LMG 08/15

You can find the right literature here:

Fokker Dr I Aces of World War 1 (Aircraft of the Aces)

Fokker Dr I Aces of World War 1 (Aircraft of the Aces) Paperback – Bargain Price, August 25, 2001

Undoubtedly the most famous fighter type to see service on either side during World War 1, the Fokker Dr I was a revelation when it entered service on the western front in 1917. Manfred von Richthofen’s JG 1 ‘circus’ was the first Jasta to completely re-equip with the new fighter, and in the skilled hands of its numerous aces the Dr I proved a formidable opponent. The Dr I remained in service on the Western Front until replaced by the superior Fokker D VII in May 1918. Just weeks prior to that, however, Germany’s leading ace, the great ‘Red Baron’, had been killed at the controls of a Dr I.

Friedrichshafen Aircraft of WWI: A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes (Great War Aviation) (Volume 21)

Friedrichshafen Aircraft of WWI: A Centennial Perspective on Great War Airplanes (Great War Aviation) (Volume 21) Paperback – February 16, 2016

This book describes and illustrates the development of Friedrichshafen aircraft of WWI with text, 540 photos, 18 in color, 37 color profiles, production quantities and serial numbers of aircraft, and aircraft dimensions and performance specifications. In addition, there are 26 official SVK drawings and 11 aircraft are illustrated in scale drawings to 1/48 (4) or 1/72 (7) scales. The book has 312 pages and is of interest to aviation historians, enthusiasts, and modelers alike.

German and Austro-Hungarian Aircraft Manufacturers 1908-1918

German and Austro-Hungarian Aircraft Manufacturers 1908-1918 Paperback – December 15, 2010

Much has been written about the British aircraft of the First World War, but little has surfaced about the aircraft of the Axis powers, Germany and Austria. Here, Terry C. Treadwell tells the story of the aircraft from companies such as Fokker, builder of the famous triplane, as fl own by Baron von Richthofen's Flying Circus, AEG, Albatros, Junkers and Hansa. From reconnaissance aircraft to state-of-the-art bombers that could reach London, this is the definitive guide to aircraft of the Axis powers during the First World War. The aircraft are explained in detail and a history of each company is provided, making this an excellent source book for aircraft enthusiasts, model makers and those interested in the air war over the trenches of France and Belgium, as well as further afield in the Italian campaign.

The Zeppelin in Combat: A History of the German Naval Airship Division

The Zeppelin in Combat: A History of the German Naval Airship Division Hardcover – January 9, 1997

The standard reference now revised and expanded. Dr. Robinson has opened up his vast photo archives to enhance this new edition of his classic work. Much of the new photographic material is published here for the first time.


Commitment

When the first 13 D.III reached the front in January 1917, their climbing ability and maneuverability made them superior to the Allied aircraft. In March 1917 137 D.III were already in use, in May 327. The albatrosses won the air superiority and maintained it throughout the spring, when almost all of the 37 fighter squadrons were equipped with D.III. In the bloody April 1917, the British alone lost 151 aircraft with only 30 German losses.

However, a dangerous design weakness came to light in use: The narrow, single-spar lower wings were designed too weakly, and so vibrations occurred during high loads when falling and turning, which could result in fluttering, breaking wings or completely losing the lower wings . In this way, two fighter pilots of Jasta 2 lost their lives on January 24, 1917, and the leader of Jasta 11, Manfred von Richthofen , was only able to save himself with difficulty by making an emergency landing after the lower wing broke. This deficiency was never completely rectified and was even more pronounced in the successor Albatros DV In contrast to their German colleagues, the Austrian engineers who rebuilt the Albatros D.III as Oeffag D.III for the Austro-Hungarian aviation troops under license and continuously improved over three series, succeeded in solving this problem.

However, as more and better Allied fighters appeared in the sky, including the SPAD S.VII and the Sopwith Triplane , the D.III was replaced from July 1917 by the more powerful Albatros DV . In November, however, there were still 446 D.III's in the west, in Palestine and in the Balkans, while the enemy with the even more powerful fighters SE5 , Sopwith Camel and the SPAD S.XII were already the next generation of superior single-seaters in superior numbers Sent battle. The Albatros D.III remained in use until the end of the war.

In addition to the German air force, the Turkish air force successfully deployed the Albatros D.III. However, the Oeffag D.III series 53.2, 153 and 253 with 185, 200 or 225 hp Austro-Daimler engines, produced by Oeffag for the Austro- Hungarian aviation troops, proved to be the best .

After the end of the war, the D.III - mainly Oeffag D.III , from the holdings of the dissolved kuk aviation troops - was used on the Polish side in the Polish-Soviet war .

Aircraft in the front line

From January 1917 to around summer 1917, the Albatros D.III successively replaced almost all other types of fighter aircraft a total of 1,340 machines had been built by the beginning of 1918

The German hunting squadrons reported the following stocks:

month Bet number
January 1917 13
March 1917 137
May 1917 327
July 1917 303
September 1917 385
November 1917 446
January 1918 423
March 1918 357
May 1918 174
July 1918 82
September 1918 52

Performance comparison

Performance comparison of single-seaters in the front line at the end of the First World War :


To Live and Let Live, believes John Keefe II

Dr. John Patrick Keefe II, born on March 7, 1979, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma has rightly been a true citizen of its state, a true patriotic to its country and most importantly, a true human to the mankind. People come and people go, stories are read and forgotten. However, there is a particular person and his particular story, which is maybe small as compared to the history of the world but impactful and meaningful enough to be remembered by every Oklahoman.

In January of 2015, John applied for something, which after a span of time created a buzz in the whole Oklahoma. What it was and why it was, many were not able to see the both sides of the story. What they saw was a man creating disharmony in the society and what they failed to see was that this man was trying to create harmony for everyone, for every race, caste, religion and sex.

“LGBTALY”, that’s what his supposed-to-be license plate should have read. It meant LGBT Ally and its purpose was to show that he supports and to spread the message that you should also. But, this was termed sexual in nature by the Oklahoma Tax Commission (OTC) and was said that the message would be offensive to many citizens. “It’s not about my personality, It’s about the population that we are discriminating against,” says John Keefe II, but the law was not able to recognize it.

Having completed his Doctoral degree in Education Administration from Bethel University, John Keefe II has been leading a successful life as a wedding officiant at Lifelong Wedding Ceremonies creating bonds of love not between a male and female, black and white but just between humans helping them live happily as who they actually are. He does LGBT marriages.

He took a stand for equal rights for everyone by writing a very moving and strong letter to the editor of The Daily Oklahoman in September 2000 for LGBT. He even left his reputable position of Cub Scout Leader at the Boy Scouts of America to protest for what he believes in.

He took his fight for “LGBTALY” as far as he could. For him, Oklahoma and its citizens come first. Seeing that it was being misled by many, he stopped his fight there, but continues to support LGBT and always will. To live and let live, this message is what he truly believes in and wants to spread it in the world.


Watch the video: الباتروس بالاس شرم الشيخ == Albatros Palace Sharm == sharm el sheikh


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