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Can anyone tell me what currency this is? I think it's Japanese but I'm not sure from when or even where. Someone in my family brought it back from the service.
This is a Taiwanese bankote with a face value of TWD $10. It depicts Dr Sun Yat-sen with the Presidential Office in Taipei on the reverse. The text says "Bank of Taiwan", the issuing authority, and "Year 59 of the Republic", i.e. 1960 in the Common Era. This date identifies when the printing plates were designed, not when the specific note was printed or issued. Which means it was part of the first issue of the horizontal series. Prior to it, Taiwanese banknotes were vertical.
There were two versions of the $10 note in the first series, one in red as in the question, and the other in dark blue. The image shown in @JMS's answer is the latter.
Both versions were printed using the same plates, but in different facilities and issued in different years. The blue version was printed by the Bank of Taiwan's Printing Bureau, and first issued on 14 January, 1963. The red version was printed by the Central Engraving and Printing Plant, which was operated by Taiwan's Central Bank. This version was released into general circulation only from 1 August, 1968.
Other denominations from the same series:
From left to right and top to bottom: $5, $10, $50, $100.
Looks like Semaphore just beat me to it. I found it by googling who uses kanji characters. Then searching on cropped parts of the images (the portrait and bridge and kanji characters) , with "10" and interchanging country names like Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, China, Hong Kong and finally Taiwan. Took about 20 minutes.
Found the 10 yen note from Taiwan currency circa 1960 with Dr Sun Yat-sen, born 1866 Xiangshan, Guangdong, from China, Portrait from 1925 Beijing.
Access a selection of bank note images, past and present.
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How to Identify Counterfeit Money
This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. wikiHow's Content Management Team carefully monitors the work from our editorial staff to ensure that each article is backed by trusted research and meets our high quality standards.
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One of history's oldest crimes is counterfeiting money and it the problem continues to grow: for example, the United States Secret Service removed move than $182 million in fake currency from circulation in 2009.  X Trustworthy Source Consumer Reports Nonprofit organization dedicated to consumer advocacy and product testing Go to source Business owners, private citizens who are selling anything, and the general public can be scammed with counterfeit bills because of increasingly sophisticated printers.  X Trustworthy Source Consumer Reports Nonprofit organization dedicated to consumer advocacy and product testing Go to source As a result, almost anyone can fall prey to counterfeit bills and either lose money or be in legal trouble because passing fake money is against the law in many countries.  X Trustworthy Source Consumer Reports Nonprofit organization dedicated to consumer advocacy and product testing Go to source But by examining and comparing bills or using devices that detect fakes, you can identify counterfeit money.
Obscuring your IP address
As I mentioned above, if your internet connection is through a corporate network, proxy, or VPN, things get more complex. The IP address seen by the web server might only indicate the company providing your internet connection, proxy, or VPN service. Typically, those completely hide the IP address at your actual location.
In fact, this is one of the reasons that TOR – The Onion Router – exists. It uses a multi-layered series of proxies in such a way that even with things like court orders and legal justifications, your origin IP address cannot be determined.
So, to answer at least part of your question: to hide your origin IP address, use something like a VPN service or TOR.
But your IP address is really only a small part of the issue.
General banknote questions
Do banknotes carry germs?
Do you sell commemorative or souvenir banknotes?
We do not produce commemorative notes as such, although depicting a celebrated person on the back of each, is a form of commemoration.
What does the ‘promise to pay’ on banknotes mean?
The words ‘I promise to pay the bearer on demand the sum of five/ten/twenty/fifty pounds’ appear on all of our notes. This phrase dates from long ago when our notes represented deposits of gold. At that time, a member of the public could exchange one of our banknotes for gold of the same value. For example, a £5 note could be exchanged for five gold coins, called sovereigns.
However, the value of the pound has not been linked to gold for many years, so the meaning of the promise to pay has changed. You can no longer exchange banknotes for gold. You can only exchange them for other Bank of England banknotes of the same face value.
What does ‘legal tender’ mean?
Legal tender is a term that people often use, but when it comes to what can or can’t be used to pay for things, it has little practical use.
Legal tender has a very narrow and technical meaning, which relates to settling debts. It means that if you are in debt to someone, you can’t be sued for non-payment if you offer full payment of your debts in legal tender.
What is classed as legal tender varies throughout the UK. In England and Wales, Royal Mint coins and Bank of England notes are legal tender.
In Scotland and Northern Ireland, only Royal Mint coins are legal tender. Throughout the UK, there are some restrictions when using the lower-value coins as legal tender. For example, 1p and 2p coins only count as legal tender for any amount up to 20p.
Whose signature appears on Bank of England banknotes?
Our Chief Cashier’s signature is on every one of our banknotes. Chief Cashiers sign banknotes on behalf of the Bank of England to demonstrate our promise to pay the value of the note for all time.
Our banknotes are periodically updated to reflect the current Chief Cashier’s name. There are some notes in circulation with the signatures of previous Chief Cashiers. These remain legal tender.
Is it illegal to deface a banknote?
Who decides who appears on new banknotes?
The Queen is always on the front of our notes. But when we issue a new banknote, the Banknote Character Advisory Committee chooses a field to celebrate on the note and we invite the public to nominate who they think should appear on it. We call the people on the back of our notes ‘characters’. Then, our Banknote Character Advisory Committee creates a short-list and presents it to our Governor, who makes the final choice.
We used this process for the first time in 2015 when we picked the character for the polymer £20 note, JMW Turner. We used it more recently in 2019 to choose the face of our new polymer £50 note, when we had 227,299 nominations from the public. The character on the new £50 note will be the mathematician Alan Turing. The new £50 will be issued on 23 June 2021.
Where can I find out more about the history of banknotes?
We have produced banknotes since shortly after we were founded in 1694. You can see examples of every note we’ve ever made in the online collections from our museum.
The museum also has artwork by banknote designers machinery and equipment relating to banknote production and examples of counterfeit and imitation notes. It is the largest collection of Bank of England notes and associated material in the world.
3. Lili Elbe (1882-1931)
One of the most iconic and tragic names in early trans history, Lili Elbe serves as a reminder of both how far we have come and how much we have failed to move forward. A Danish painter married to another painter, Elbe’s story began, according to her own account, when one of her wife Gerda’s models failed to show. So Gerda asked Elbe to sit for her instead. The moment was astonishing to Elbe: it just felt right to dress in women’s clothes, to be depicted as one. She continued to do so in private at Gerda’s encouragement. But she was also confused by these feelings.
The dysphoria was overwhelming and inexplicable for her. Doctors shook their heads at her, and Elbe became despairingly convinced that “my case has never been known in the history of medical art.” In 1930, she planned to kill herself. The legendary doctor Magnus Hirschfield—who was working on determining how sex, sexual orientation, and gender were connected𠅋riefly saved her, claiming he could implant a womb into Elbe using new experimental procedures. Elbe, who was divorced by then, took the risk, undergoing multiple surgeries. She began living in society as a woman, despite rejection from many who had known her before, and said she wanted to give birth, though tragically she died the year after Hirschfield’s uterus implantation.
8 Traits the Most Toxic People in Your Life Share
Do you know a toxic person? Even if you don't now, at some point in your life you're bound to have come across a person who fits the description. Dealing with such an individual can be difficult and draining, to say the least. In fact, it may challenge what you know about yourself and push you to the limits. Here are some traits to familiarize yourself with, and to help you navigate these trying relationships:
- Toxic people are manipulative. Their modus operandi is to get people to do what they want them to do. It’s all about them. They use other people to accomplish whatever their goal happens to be. Forget what you want this is not about equality in a relationship—far from it.
- They are judgmental. Keep your eyes and ears open for criticism—about you, what you've done, and what you didn’t do. It’s never about them, and they will lie if it serves them.
- They take no responsibility for their own feelings. Rather, their feelings are projected onto you. If you try to point this out to them, they will likely vehemently defend their perspective, and take no responsibility for almost anything they do.
- They don't apologize. They don’t see any reason to, because things are always someone else’s fault. In many instances, although they try to orchestrate relationships to serve their own ends, they try to gain sympathy and attention by claiming “victim” status.
- They are inconsistent. It’s hard to know who you’re with at any given time because they are often not the same person. They may change their perspective, attitude, and behavior depending on what they feel they need to accomplish or what they want to have happen. (And they know how to be kind when they want something from you.
- They make you prove yourself to them. Toxic people make you choose them over someone else, or something they want over something you want. Often, this turns into a “divide and conquer” dynamic in which the only choice is them, even to the point of requiring you to cut off other meaningful relationships to satisfy them.
- They make you defend yourself. They have difficulty staying on point about certain issues, probably because they’re not interested in your point of view or trying to reach an amicable conclusion. Remember, they are supreme manipulators: Their tactics may include being vague and arbitrary, as well as diverting the focus of the discussion to how you’re discussing an issue—your tone, your words, etc. They focus on problems, not solutions.
- They are not caring, supportive, or interested in what’s important to you. In fact, the good things that happen to you move the attention away from them and thwart them from focusing on their own goals. Beware of people who find fault with you and make you wrong. Loyalty is foreign to them.
Toxic people often make you want to fix them and their problems. They want you to feel sorry for them, and responsible for what happens to them. Yet their problems are never really solved, for once you’ve helped them with one crisis, there’s inevitably another one. What they really want is your ongoing sympathy and support, and they will create one drama after another in order to get it. “Fixing” and “saving” them never works, especially since you probably care more about what happens to them than they do.
Toxic people are draining encounters leave you emotionally wiped out. Time with them is about taking care of their business, which will leave you feeling frustrated and unfulfilled, if not angry. Don’t allow yourself to become depleted as a result of giving and giving and getting nothing in return. At first, you may feel for them and their plight but once you observe that every interaction is negatively charged you may want to limit your contact with them, or maybe even cut ties. Your time and energy are essential for your own life. Don’t be overly willing to give them away.
And beware especially the narcissistic toxic person. Their modus operandi includes gaining total control of a situation, and that means of you, too. They will demand your undivided attention and attempt to convince you that you need to join their camp. To their way of thinking they know better than you. They’re right you’re wrong. And you need to do what they say. This kind of toxic person will think nothing of invading your space and may try to isolate you from others you are close to.
This post is meant as a general overview: Relationships are complex and it may not be easy to deal with toxic people until you have learned from previous interactions. I understand that many relationships, especially familial ones, are more difficult because it’s not so easy to close the door and say goodbye. But the bottom line is that if you feel bad about yourself as a result of a relationship with another person, it’s time to sit down and assess the issue. They may be unlikely to change, but you can. Weigh the pros (if there are any) and the cons, make a decision to limit your time with this person or end the relationship—and don’t look back.
Things a Private Investigator Cannot Do
Depending on the state, private investigators generally cannot:
Operate Without a License (If Required in That State)
Some states have extensive licensing laws for private investigators. In California, for example, an investigator must complete 6,000 hours of paid investigative work under a licensed investigator over the course of three years (or fewer hours over a shorter period of time depending on relevant advanced degrees and law enforcement background), get fingerprinted, submit an application packet, and pass the California Private Investigator Examination before they can work as a licensed private investigator.
Impersonate Law Enforcement
In most states, private investigators cannot carry a badge, wear a uniform, or use any logo or phrasing that could imply that the investigator is a police officer or federal official. This prevents private investigators from misleading individuals about their association with government agencies. In some cases, private investigators will wear badges and uniforms that indicate they are private investigators, and they will often work in conjunction with local law enforcement or federal officials.
Break the Law
In addition to limitations on how information can be obtained and other investigation techniques, a private investigator cannot harass a subject, trespass on private property, use bribery, hacking, pretexting (impersonating the individual whose records they are trying to obtain), or other deceitful methods for obtaining information, and cannot break the law on behalf of their client or investigative purposes.
Participate in Unethical Practices
An unethical practice would put an individual in danger, include obtaining information for non-investigative purposes, or using unscrupulous methods. One example would be locating an individual and providing that person's information to a stalker or person who might put that person's safety at risk. Another would be looking up information on former classmates or friends for personal purposes outside of an investigation.
A private investigator cannot enter a property, house, or building through illegal means, including breaking and entering. Though trespassing laws vary from state to state, in some jurisdictions the investigator must have permission from the owner before entering a property. Some private investigators in states like Illinois will be allowed an exemption to trespassing laws if they are working as a process server to serve legal documents.
Enter Your Home or Place of Business Without Consent
A private investigator cannot enter your residence or business without consent, and if asked to leave must do so immediately. In line with this, they cannot use forced entry or lock picking to get inside.
Tamper with Mail
Tampering with, opening, or destroying another person&rsquos mail is a federal offense.
Wiretap a Phone Without Consent
According to federal law, private investigators are prohibited from wiretapping, or monitor phone conversations, without consent from at least one of the individuals, depending on the state. 38 states in the United States, as well as the District of Columbia, have statutes that require one party to consent to the recording of a conversation, while the remaining 12 states require consent from all individuals involved in the recording. In many cases, a warrant is required to legally tap a phone, and private investigators will sometimes work with local police enforcement in order to avoid breaking any local or federal laws. You can read more on audio recording consent here: Audio Surveillance Laws by State.
Film a Subject Through a Window to a Private Home
Investigators are generally allowed to film exchanges and interactions that take place in public, but they cannot film the interior of private property through an open window.
Record a Conversation of Which No Party Has Knowledge
Depending on the jurisdiction, in order to legally record a conversation at least one person involved must be aware that they are being recorded. In some states, both parties must be alerted ahead of time. A private investigator can, however, eavesdrop on a conversation that takes place in public or is naturally loud enough to hear.
Place a GPS Tracker on a Vehicle Without Consent
GPS trackers can only be placed on vehicles with the consent of an owner. For example, if a husband wants to put a tracker on the car his wife drives, he can only do so if the car is in his name, not hers. An employer cannot place a GPS tracker on an employee's private car, but they can place a tracker on a company-owned vehicle, provided they have gone through the proper steps of consent.
Hack Into a Social Media or Email Account
Hacking of any sorts just isn't what a private investigator does. Some investigators have software that allows them to access information about profiles, like when photos were posted and pulling data on where the person was at the time, but a private investigator will not attempt to gain access to a social media account that belongs to another person.
Run a License Plate Without Reason
A private investigator cannot run a license plate unless they have a legal reason to do so. This means that a private investigator will generally run a license plate only for investigative purposes (i.e. when attempting to locate a person or conducting a background check) or for future use in a court proceeding.
Run a Credit Check
As a credit report is considered private information, a private investigator must have written consent from the individual in order to run a credit check. If granted consent, a private investigator must also have a legal purpose for running a credit check before doing so.
Obtain Protected Information Without Consent or Legal Purpose
Although they can find the location of the information, which can be helpful in asking for a subpoena, private investigators cannot obtain federally or state protected information without consent of the individual or a subpoena. These restrictions apply to various documents, including:
- Bank Accounts
A private investigator can identify the location of bank accounts associated with a specific individual, but does not have access to specific information about these accounts. Unless they have obtained permission from the account holder, a private investigator must be granted a formal demand such as a court order to legally access the files.
- Financial Records
Account-specific information, like transaction history, can't be obtained without either a court order or permission from the card or account holder.
- Phone Records
Through legitimate investigative methods, an investigator can find out what carrier or person is associated with a given phone number, but because phone records are considered private and protected by both federal and state statutes, a private investigator cannot obtain those records without a court order or subpoena.
Make a Legal Arrest
In the U.S., private investigators are not authorized to make an arrest. However, in some countries (the U.S. and Canada included) certain circumstances allow an individual not associated with law enforcement to make a citizen&rsquos arrest. Some states require written consent for a private investigator to make a specific arrest, while other jurisdictions only authorize citizen&rsquos arrest when the individual is endangering the public, or when a federal offense is witnessed. Citizen's arrests are rare in the investigative field. Some states will allow a private investigator to serve an arrest warrant under special circumstances.
Obtain Cell Phone Records Without a Warrant
An investigator cannot access cell phone records without a warrant or consent of the individual who holds the records. In most instances, a private investigator can get comparable evidence through other methods.
If you want to quickly determine if a white person in the United States is comfortably racist, I’d recommend a single question. Ask them, “Should our nation pay reparations to black people for the enslavement, mistreatment and economic exploitation of them and their ancestors over the past four hundred years?” If they immediately reject this proposition, you can be fairly confident you’ve identified a comfortable racist. On the other hand, if they’re willing to give this question serious consideration, you’ve probably identified an ethically responsible and racially conscious white person. It’s really that simple.
There is simply no compelling argument against the payment of reparations. The studies and research have been done. The historians, economists and ethicists have spoken. While there can and should be considerable debate over how reparations should be made, any white person who argues against reparations is either ignorant, immoral, racist or all of the above. Additionally, if you encounter someone opposed to paying reparations, you can be fairly certain they will offer one or all of the following three arguments…
“I have no responsibility. Neither I nor my ancestors owned slaves.”
Though I doubt most of these people have the genealogical support for their claim, such evidence would be irrelevant. The economic advantages of slavery were not limited to slave owners. Though the highest concentration of millionaires in the United States in 1840 was in the Mississippi valley, the wealth created by slavery flowed north to the textile mills, banks and, ultimately, to every white family. Cotton was the single greatest economic driver in early American history. Without the millions of hours of slave labor provided by black people, the American economy would not have thrived.
The affluence generated by this labor, though unevenly divided amongst the white population, was limited to white people. You didn’t have to be a slave owner to benefit from the enslavement of black people. You only had to be white. Indeed, the recognition of this reality fueled the strong southern support for defending slavery during the Civil War. Though only a quarter of southern whites actually owned slaves, all of them were keenly aware of the benefits they produced. Indeed, at the time of the Civil War, slaves constituted the single greatest financial asset in the United States.
While it is certainly possible to argue that some white people benefitted more from slavery than others, it is difficult to argue that even the poorest white person has received no benefit. And it is irrefutable that the chief producers of all of this immense wealth – black people – received absolutely no financial benefit from their labor. More damning, in 1865 when they were freed from legal bondage, they were paid no back wages. Most black people were left so destitute that they quickly became sharecroppers, which was often even more economically oppressive than slavery.
For these reasons, the huge disparities in accumulated wealth and economic status between white people and black people today have their roots in this historic injustice. Those who argue against reparations because they or their ancestors didn’t own slaves are like people who fill their homes with property they know was stolen from others. They may not be thieves, but they are hardly examples of responsibility and integrity. When forced to face this reality, they usually offer this argument.
“That was wrong, but it was long ago. I haven’t directly benefitted from racial injustice.”
Once we’ve established the incredible injustice of the past, we have two choices. If we’re ethical white people, we take responsibility for the injustices of our ancestors. If we’re immoral and racist, we throw our ancestors under the bus. We argue for our innocence and blamelessness. We pretend the oppression of black people ended in 1865. We ignore the evidence that most white people living today have directly benefitted from racial injustice.
As lucrative as slavery was, our ancestors weren’t the greatest beneficiaries of the oppression of black people. The single greatest economic increase in American wealth was not in the 1800s. It happened in the years after World War II, between 1950 and 1970. Billions and billions of dollars of wealth were created. Indeed, this period marked the high water mark of the American middle class. A vast majority of this wealth was intentionally limited by governmental policy to white people.
If you are white and bought a home or grew up in a home purchased between 1934 and 1977, you likely benefitted from government programs that awarded millions of tax dollars solely to white people. If you inherited a home purchased during those years, you reaped the spoils of racial injustice. If you, your parents or grandparents went to college between 1944-1964, you likely benefitted from government programs that excluded black people from millions of dollars in educational grants. If you, your parents or grandparents have received Social Security benefits, you have likely benefitted from a program that initially excluded up to 65% of all black people. It is difficult to find a single government policy between 1877 – when the Reconstruction ended – and 1977 that didn’t give preferential treatment to white people or exclude black people.
Indeed, most white people today are recipients of one of the greatest governmental affirmative action programs in history. Between 1934 and 1977, billions of tax dollars were funneled exclusively or primarily to white people. Since any argument for equity would require an equal distribution of this government largesse, we can fairly say that the greatest recipients of racial injustice are not long dead slave owners, but middle class white people today. When forced to face this reality, those who oppose reparations usually default to more obviously racist rhetoric.
“Well, that wasn’t fair, but what can you do. You can’t just give black people cash. They’d just waste it.” (Or some other generally disparaging remark about black people.)
Once we’ve established the incredible injustice of the present, we have two choices. If we’re ethical white people, we take responsibility for the injustices of our present system and seek to rectify them. If we’re immoral and racist, we throw black people under the bus. In arguing for their inadequacy and incompetency, we verify our ancestry. Like our forefathers, we justify the oppression of black people with the same paternal racist rhetoric. We miss the obvious. Once you’ve acknowledged the resources were stolen, what they do with any compensation is irrelevant. It’s their money.
How reparations are paid shouldn’t be up to white people. I can’t imagine any court in the land that would leave the terms of compensation up to the thieves. What we must do as a country is determine an appropriate amount of compensation for the damages done to generations of black people. That’s going to be expensive. And it should be. The debt needs to be paid back with interest.
It is time for white people who are ethically responsible and racially conscious to voice our support for the payment of reparations. It is time for our nation to finally pay its debts to the black people upon whose backs we’ve built the most prosperous nation in human history. It is time to ask black people to tell us how they want us to make these payments. It is far past time. And when some white people complain of the injustice of it all, we who are ethically responsible and racially conscious must identify that opposition for what it has always been – racist and immoral.
(Special thanks to Ta-Nehesi Coates’ for his essay, “The Case For Reparations,” which should be required reading for every white person in America. My short post is a poor reflection of this masterful essay.)
(This post is part of a three part series. The second post is entitled “A Reasonable Reparation.” The third post is entitled “Paying My Reparations.”
Identifying US Currency
The United States is the only country that prints all denominations of currency in the same size. The US and Switzerland are the only two countries that use the same colors for all of their various bills. Needless to say, this sameness of size and color make it impossible for a blind person to locate the correct bills to make a purchase without some sort of assistance, or confirm that he or she has been given the correct change by the sales clerk. Even people with partial sight may have trouble distinguishing a $1 bill from a $10, especially if the bill is old and worn.
Thanks to a lawsuit brought by the American Council of the Blind (ACB), the Treasury Department must make US currency accessible to blind and visually impaired Americans under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Unfortunately, the wheels of government grind slowly. According to a press release from the Treasury’s Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP):
The U.S. government will continue to research a raised tactile feature for use on the next redesigned Federal Reserve note and will continue to add large, high-contrast numerals and different colors to each redesigned note denomination that it is permitted by law to alter. The process for redesigning Federal Reserve notes is complex and time intensive. Notes with any new features are not expected to be in circulation before 2020.
An Interim Solution to Currency Identification for People with Visual Impairments: The iBill Talking Bank Note Identifier
For many years, private companies have been producing currency readers that identify and announce the denomination of a bill inserted into a sensor on the device. One of these devices, the iBill Talking Bank Note Identifier, is now available free of charge from the Treasury Department to any US citizen who is blind or visually impaired.
The iBill is compact enough to slip into a side pocket. It can identify all US currency, assuming the bills are not too crumpled or otherwise damaged. It announces the denomination in your choice of three ways: It can speak the dollar amount it can produce a different pattern of tones for each denomination or it can vibrate silently, which may be helpful in keeping your financial information private when you use the iBill at a cash register or count your change.
If you would like to hear the iBill Talking Bank Note Identifier in action, listen to this audio demonstration from an iBill user.
To apply for a free iBill, you will need to complete an application on the BEP website. The application is available in an accessible PDF that can be filled out online. Once the form is complete, you will need to print the document, obtain the signature of a doctor or other qualified professional who can verify your visual impairment, then mail the completed application to the address on the form. Talking Books subscribers can get the iBill without filling out the application or getting a doctor’s verification by calling their state library and putting in a request.
A Mobile Solution
Along with the free iBill currency identifier, the Treasury Department has also developed a pair of mobile apps that use your Android or iOS device’s camera to identify US currency. The Android version, called IDEAL Currency Identifier, is available from the Google Play Store. The iOS version, called EyeNote, is available from the iTunes App Store.
After starting either of these apps, all you need to do is to point your phone’s camera at the bill. After a few seconds the app will report both the currency amount and whether you are showing the front or rear face of the bill.
The LookTel Money Reader for Apple iPhones, iPads, and newer models of the iPod touch, is available from the iTunes Store for $9.99. You can also use your Mac desktop or laptop computer to identify currency with the OS X version, which can be purchased from the Mac App Store.
These apps operate similarly to the free versions offered from the Treasury Department, but the LookTel Money Reader will identify currencies from 21 different countries, which makes this a must have for international travelers.
There are also several other apps that can distinguish a $5 bill from a $20, as well as a can of corned beef hash from that can of spinach you still don’t want to eat. We’ll have a lot more to say about such apps later on in this guide.